VIZCAYA, SPAIN—The remains of more than 2,500 domestic cows, sheep, and pigs from 41 archaeological sites across the Iberian Peninsula were measured and analyzed by Idoia Grau-Sologestoa of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country. She found that the size of domestic animals is linked to livestock management practices over time. “The increase in animal size is normally linked to improvements of an environmental type (for example to new ways of feeding) or of a genetic type (for example, by importing larger animals). Larger domestic animal size entails a number of economic advantages with an increase in meat production or traction strength. What is more, improved domestic animals tend to grow faster which helps to increase their productivity,” she explained in a press release. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the size of domestic animals did not undergo significant changes, and between the eighth and ninth centuries, domestic animals were actually smaller, perhaps because of the semi-free foraging practices of the Early Middle Ages, as confirmed by the analysis of stable isotopes in cattle bones. But the size of domestic animals, especially sheep, has been increasing since the Late Middle Ages. “This increase is linked to the importance of sheep husbandry in this period not only for meat production but also to take advantage of the wool and milk of these animals,” she said. Grau-Sologestoa will soon examine the changes in livestock management during the transition to the modern era. To read more, see "The Origins of Domestic Cattle."
NORTHUMBERLAND, ENGLAND—Recent excavations at Vindolanda, a Roman fort near Hadrian’s Wall, have uncovered a free-standing water tank, animal bones, pens, hairpins, barrels, and a stone engraved with a hare and a hound, perhaps for Diana, the goddess of hunting. “The excavators concentrated on the water tank feature and the roads surrounding it. They managed to complete the task of excavating the tank down to its flagged floor, removing the rubbish, fill, and facing stones which had been pitched into the tank after its abandonment. These would have carried the large flag stones which were to eventually cover the feature entirely,” director of excavations Andrew Birley told Culture 24. Coins, animal bone, and pottery in the fill will help the researchers determine when the backfilling took place. The tank was encased with an outer wall within a temple or shrine. “The building would have been accessed from the road to the east, although one can imagine that most may have not been permitted to enter. Instead, they could have obtained their water from the small header tank in front of the building and been restricted to looking into the temple to see a raised platform at the back, perhaps with the effigy of the god or goddess reflected in the water below,” Birley said.
RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA—According to a report in Forbes, osteological analysis of three skulls from the site of Wata Wata in Bolivia suggests that the one man and two women experienced extreme violence at or near the time of death. The victims were incapacitated, but may have still been alive at the time of the torture. Sara Becker, now of the University of California at Riverside, and Sonia Alconini of the University of Texas at San Antonio wrote in the journal Latin American Antiquity that the marks on the skull of the first woman show that she had been scalped and beheaded. Cut marks on her upper cheekbones, around her eyes indicate that her eyes may have been gouged out. The man had suffered a broken nose that had healed before his death, but he also had a large, unhealed skull fracture and there are cut marks around his eye orbit. The second woman had also experienced a blow to the head. Cut marks indicate that her head was defleshed, and her lower jaw and eyes were removed. “The physical extraction of the eyes of the Wata Wata heads may be a symbol of blindness and blinding the power of these individuals,” they said. Becker and Alconini think the three may have been decapitated, dismembered, and buried by a new regime during a political transition. For more on ancient political machinations in the Andes, see "The Water Temple of Inca-Caranqui."
ASWAN, EGYPT—A team of archaeologists led by Maria Nilsson and John Ward of Sweden’s Lund University has unearthed rock inscriptions and cartouches for Amenhotep III and Ramses II at a 3,300-year-old temple site in the Gebel El Silsila quarry. “The significance of the find is that it changes the history of the site, and it firmly established Gebel el Silsila as not only a quarry, but also a sacred location. The archaeologists are currently studying the material, and working on producing a comprehensive plan and eventually a 3-D (digital) reconstruction,” Ward told The Cairo Post. Beads dating to the 18th Dynasty, colored plaster, faience, pottery, and a blue-colored scarab were recovered from the temple area. The temple had four visible layers, column bases, and inner and outer walls. The oldest phase of the temple had been built from limestone and “may signify the official changeover from limestone construction to sandstone,” Nilsson said. For more on Egyptian temples, see "The Cult of Amun."
TARRAGONA, SPAIN—Edgard Camaró, Carlos Lorenzo, and Florent Rivals of the Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana I Evolució Social (IPHES) examined the bones of people who were recently killed by large carnivores such as lions, tigers, bears, and leopards, and compared the injuries they found with the injuries found on Neanderthal fossils. The “same pattern is observed and therefore we infer that Neanderthals were also attacked by large carnivores,” Camaró said in a press release. “This remarks the importance that predation has on human evolution, and the strong pressure that existed between Neanderthals and large carnivores during prehistory,” he added. The research has also identified the particular marks made by various carnivores, which will benefit forensic medicine. “The use of forensic medicine to explain the past provides useful information and provides new approaches between sciences and transfer of knowledge,” he said. To read more about our extinct cousins, see "Should We Clone Neanderthals?"
LONDON, ENGLAND—Researchers from the Hunter-Gatherer Resilience Project at University College London lived among populations of hunter-gatherers in Congo and the Philippines to investigate why these small communities are made up of large numbers of individuals with no kinship ties to each other. Computer simulations show that camp relatedness is low when men and women share the influence over where the family lives, and alternate between moving to camps where husbands have close kin and camps where wives have close kin. “While previous researchers have noted the low relatedness of hunter-gatherer bands, our work offers an explanation as to why this pattern emerges. It is not that individuals are not interested in living with kin. Rather, if all individuals seek to live with as many kin as possible, no one ends up living with many kin at all,” lead researcher Mark Dyble said in a press release. Such living arrangements may have helped high cognition, cumulative culture, and hyper-cooperation to evolve in human ancestors. To read about hunter-gatherers in Chile's Atacama Desert, see "The Desert and the Dead."
EDMONTON, CANADA—Artifacts dating to 1810 have been discovered on the south bank of the North Saskatchewan River, across from the location of Fort Edmonton. This is the first time that artifacts from this time period, including a ring, glass beads, and other European decorative items, have been found outside the original fort. “Once you start to have things associated with the fort outside its walls, then you start to see a community establishing itself in an area,” archaeologist Ryan Eldridge of Turtle Island Cultural Resource Management told CBC Canada. These residents on the other side of the river may have been Métis people, who were often born of First Nations women and European men. “People would have been employed as hunters to supply the fort, carpenters, cooks, tailors. All of that support structure that you needed to keep the facility operating,” Eldridge explained. To read about historical archaeology in Canada, see "Saga of the Northwest Passage."
NARA, JAPAN—A tiny amount of pollen from basil plants has been detected at the Makimuku ruins, thought to be the palace of Himiko, the shaman queen of the Yamataikoku kingdom. The pale-colored pollen is more than 1,500 years old and originated in the tropics of Southeast Asia, according to archaeologist Masaaki Kanehara and environmental archaeologist Masako Kanehara of the Nara University of Education. “Basil of Southeast Asian origin could have been brought here as dried medicinal herbs through exchanges with the Chinese,” Masako Kanehara told The Asahi Shimbun. The pollen was recovered from a ditch near a huge burial mound during excavations in 1991. The husband and wife team identified the species of basil by growing about ten different kinds and comparing pollen from the samples to the ancient specimen. Since only a small amount of the pollen was found, basil was probably not cultivated in the area. To read about another pollen study, see "America's Chinatowns: Food."
HALIFAX, NOVA SCOTIA—Nova News Now reports that a section of the nineteenth-century Shubenacadie Canal has been uncovered at the corner of Prince Albert Road and Pleasant Street in Dartmouth. This section of the canal, which linked Halifax to northern Nova Scotia by connecting a series of lakes, carried boats via a pulley powered by a turbine installed in 1862. “It’s very rare,” Terry Gallagher, manager of facility design and construction for the city, said of the surviving piece of machinery. The canal was widely used during the gold rushes of the 1860s but eventually closed in 1871 after a fixed railroad bridge that blocked steamships was built over the canal. The site will be reconstructed and interpreted as part of the Dartmouth Canal Greenway Project. To read more about canals in the Archive, see "The Canal Age."
SISTAN-BALUCHESTAN PROVINCE, IRAN—Archaeologists working in southeastern Iran at the Bronze-Age site known as the Burnt City have uncovered a brick wall standing more than five feet tall. The wall, located at Taleb Khan Mound, dates to the fourth phase of the city, between 2300 and 2100 B.C. Archaeologists also recently recovered intact dishes, bricks bearing fingerprints, and the leg of a small cow figurine made of clay. “This is the most naturalistic artwork from 4,500 years ago. The hoof cleft and the back of the leg have been realistically created and present a unique simulation,” team leader Hossein-Ali Kavosh told Press TV. The 5,200-year-old city was burned three times, but not rebuilt after the last fire. To read in-depth about the Burnt City, see "The World in Between."
REYKJAVÍK, ICELAND—Because of the low population density in Iceland during the Middle Ages, it had been assumed that monks shared parish churches with the people. Last week, British and Icelandic scientists looking for the remains of Þykkvabæjarklaustur in South Iceland found them away from the parish church. Now they are looking for the cloisters at Möðruvellir and MunkaÞverá in North Iceland, and have ruled out possible sites near those parish churches. “I think it is highly unlikely that, when cloisters were established, that churches nearby were used. Because there is so much difference between monastic chapels and parish churches, or home churches. They were the churches of the people, the flock, and not of the cloisters,” archaeologist Steinunn J. Kristjánsdóttir told Iceland Review. It appears that the monks preferred to build their own chapels. To read in-depth about archaeology in Iceland, see "Surviving the Little Ice Age."
SOUTHAMPTON, ENGLAND—A new study of a 1,500-year-old skeleton from eastern England confirms that the man, who was probably in his early 20s at the time of death, suffered from leprosy. Changes consistent with the disease can been seen in the narrowing of his toe bones and in damage to his joints. “Not all cases of leprosy can be identified by changes to the skeleton. Some may leave no trace on the bones; other will affect bones in a similar way to other diseases. In these cases the only way to be sure is to use DNA fingerprinting, or other chemical markers characteristic of the leprosy bacillus,” Sonia Zakrzewski of the University of Southampton said in a press release. In this case, the bacterial DNA was in good condition, and the team of scientists, which also included researchers from the University of Leiden and the universities of Birmingham, Surrey, and Swansea, was able to identify the strain of leprosy. It has previously been found in burials from medieval Scandinavia and southern Britain, and is thought to date to the fifth or sixth century A.D. Analysis of isotopes from the man’s teeth show that he probably grew up in northern Europe, so he may have brought the Scandinavian strain of leprosy with him when he came to Britain. “We plan to carry out similar studies on skeletons from different locations to build up a more complete picture of the origins and early spread of this disease,” said team leader Sarah Inskip of the University of Leiden. To read more about the study of diseases in ancient remains, see "Heart Attack of the Mummies."
NANJING, CHINA—Live Science reports that two stone epitaphs recovered from a Ming Dynasty tomb in Nanjing have been translated. The 500-year-old epitaphs tell the story of Lady Mei, whose remains were found in a water-damaged casket, along with gem-encrusted gold bracelets, a fragrance box, and hairpins. Born in 1430, Lady Mei was one of three wives of the Duke of Qian. “Lady Mei was probably a concubine whom he married after he went to guard and rule Yunnan,” researchers led by excavation crew chief Haining Qi wrote in the Chinese journal Wenwu, which has been published in English in Chinese Cultural Relics. She gave birth to a son, who was ten months old when the duke died. The epitaphs say she “was only 21 years of age. She was unwashed and unkempt, and called herself the survivor.” The text praises her for raising the third-generation duke and keeping the household in order. After her son came to power, the well-loved Lady Mei was known as the “Dowager Duchess” until her death in 1474. “On the day of her death, the people of Yunnan, military servicemen or civilians, old and young, all mourned and grieved for her as if their own parents had passed away,” read the epitaphs. To read more about sites in China, see "The Tomb Raider Chronicles."
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS—Genetic testing of a 40,000-year-old mandible with modern human and Neanderthal traits has revealed that the Oase man’s genome was between five and 11 percent Neanderthal, including large chunks of several chromosomes. Palaeogenomicist Qiaomei Fu of Harvard Medical School and her colleagues analyzed how lengths of DNA inherited from an ancestor shorten with each generation. They estimate that this individual’s Neanderthal ancestor was introduced in the previous four to six generations. The jawbone and one other human bone were discovered among bear remains in a Romanian cave called Peştera cu Oase. Erik Trinkaus of Washington University in St. Louis has argued that these bones point to inbreeding between humans and Neanderthals. “I guess it’s reassuring at some level that there’s correspondence between what the anatomy is telling us and what the genes are telling us,” he commented in Nature News. And radiocarbon dates suggest that modern humans and Neanderthals may have been in Europe together for up to 5,000 years in some areas. Fu presented her team’s work at the recent Biology of Genomes meeting. To read more about our extinct cousins, see "Should We Clone Neanderthals?"
SAN MARCOS, TEXAS—While looking for ships that belonged to Captain Henry Morgan, the notorious English privateer, a team of underwater archaeologists discovered a rare seventeenth-century Spanish shipwreck off the coast of Panama. The Encarnación, built in Veracruz, Mexico, was a ship in Spain’s Tierra Firme fleet, which carried precious metals from the New World to Spain and distributed European goods throughout the Spanish colonies. “These ships were the backbone of the Spanish colonies,” Fritz Hanselmann of Texas State University told National Geographic News. Sixteen such shipwrecks have been found, but the Encarnación is unusual in that it has not been looted and is well preserved. “It is the rise of capitalism, imperialism, rationalism, and the middle classes that are going to buy art and consume literature,” said nautical archaeologist Filipe Castro of Texas A&M University. To read in-depth about the project, see "Pirates of the Original Panamal Canal."
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA—An underwater vehicle searching for the missing Malaysia Airlines plane MH370 has found a shipwreck off the coast of Western Australia in the Indian Ocean. The images taken by the automated underwater vehicle reveal an anchor, a box-shaped object, and black rocks that may be coal scattered across the seabed. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau told The Sydney Morning Herald that the wreck is uncharted. “It’s a fascinating find but it’s not what we’re looking for,” spokesperson Peter Foley said. The information will be passed on to marine archaeologists for further research. To read in-depth about underwater archaeology see "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks."
ZURICH, SWITZERLAND—Frank Rühli, director of the Institute of Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich, and his colleagues used body height, which is highly hereditable, to look for possible, non-invasive evidence of incest among 259 Egyptian mummies. Historical sources record the marriages of brothers and sisters, which were believed to preserve the sacred bloodlines of pharaohs descended from the gods. Pharaohs who were married to their sisters, but whose parents were not siblings, were not considered in the study. The team found that the body heights of royals varied less than the body heights of commoners. “Pharaohs varied less in height than men of the common population. This is one indicator of inbreeding,” Rühli told Discovery News. The study showed that pharaohs, overall, were taller than non-royal males from the same time period. Ramses II was the tallest of the pharaohs under investigation. There was little difference in the height of queens and non-royal women, however. The pattern could also reflect the living environment of the wealthy royals. “Average height and height variation reflect very nicely the quality of the environment. So, the very good environment of the royal men might be another reason why their height variation is reduced compared with commoners,” commented Barry Bogin of Loughborough University. He has studied height variation among children from very wealthy families and very poor families.
HEREFORD, ENGLAND—The remains of a Saxon child estimated to have been between the ages of ten and 12 at the time of death were unearthed at Hereford Cathedral as part of an excavation funded by the Heritage Lottery. At the time of the burial, a Saxon palace is thought to have stood on the site. “We are still investigating it. The child seems to have been a very poorly young person but was buried with dignity,” Andy Boucher of Headland Archaeology told BBC News. The remains of thousands of people buried from the eleventh to the nineteenth centuries were uncovered during the restoration of the church’s grounds. Seven hundred of the better-preserved burials are being studied in more detail, including the remains of a man who may have been a Norman knight. Scientists from Durham University found injuries to his legs consistent with a jousting accident. “The burials provided some fascinating information on the health and stresses of daily life in the middle ages in Hereford,” Boucher added. To read more about Anglo-Saxon archaeology, see "The Kings of Kent."
LONDON, ENGLAND—An examination of more than 300 rural and urban skeletons from Roman Britain suggests that it was healthier to live in town. “The assumption is always that if you’re living in the countryside it’s healthier. But we found that urban dwellers were more likely to reach old age that their rural counterparts,” Rebecca Redfern of the Museum of London told New Scientist. Redfern and her colleagues studied 150 skeletons from nine rural cemeteries in what is now Dorset in southern England, and found that 29.5 percent of them lived beyond the age of 35. The remainder of the individuals came from urban cemeteries in modern-day Dorchester, or Roman Durnovaria. The bones revealed that 34 percent of the city dwellers lived beyond the age of 35. “The reason they probably lived longer is that small towns like Durnovaria were far less polluted than much larger cities like Rome, and so had relatively small populations and lower housing densities compared with other urban areas in the Roman Empire,” she explained. Children living in town, however, were more likely to die before reaching age ten, and town residents were more likely to suffer from rickets, tuberculosis, and dental disorders—probably due to more wine and preserves in their diets than what was eaten in the country. Many of the country folk were probably serfs and laborers who survived on basic diets. To read more about life in Roman Britain, see "Artifact: Romano-British Brooch."
CLEVELAND, OHIO—The Cleveland Museum of Art has returned a tenth-century statue of Hanuman, the Hindu monkey god, to Cambodia. The 800-pound sandstone sculpture was purchased in good faith by the museum in 1982, but officials recently learned that the sculpture’s base matched a pedestal at the east gate of the Prasat Chen Temple at Cambodia’s Koh Ker archaeological site. The statue was probably looted from the temple during the Vietnam War and the Cambodian civil war. Excavations at the site uncovered the statue’s missing earring and other fragments. The Cleveland Museum of Art and the National Museum of Cambodia have now entered an agreement to facilitate joint projects. “I’m very optimistic that the conversations we have begun will result in cooperation of various kinds, and we are continuing to explore those possibilities,” William Griswold, director of the Cleveland Museum of Art, told The Plain Dealer. “Our research revealed a very real likelihood that it was removed from a site enormously important to the kingdom of Cambodia during a terrible time and its return was completely consistent with the highest legal and fiduciary standards,” he said. To read in-depth about archaeology in Cambodia, see "A Storied Landscape."