HAMBLEDEN, ENGLAND—Simon Mays of English Heritage continues to analyze the bones of Roman infants discovered near the site of Yewden Villa, which were first excavated in 1912. Mays and archaeologist Jill Eyers suggested two years ago that the babies had been killed at birth, based upon measurements of their arms and legs that indicated they were all newborns at the time of death. Now, DNA analysis suggests that boys had not been spared at the expense of girls. The researchers were able to obtain DNA from 12 of the 33 individuals. Of those, seven were female and five were male, a relatively even ration, according to Mays. And, none of the babies had shared a mother, making it unlikely that the burial site was used by prostitutes. “Very often, societies have preferred male offspring, so when they practice infanticide, it tends to be the male babies that are kept, and the female babies that are killed,” he explained.
BARCELONA, SPAIN—An international team of scientists led by Carles Lalueza-Fox of the University of Barcelona has released information from a preliminary study of 8,000-year-old DNA obtained from a skeleton discovered in Spain’s La Braña Cave. The new information, when compared to the genomes of other early nomadic hunter-gatherers from across Europe, indicates that nomadic hunter-gatherers were a genetically and culturally more cohesive group than had been thought. In particular, La Braña man was unable to digest starch and milk, had dark skin and blue eyes, and had immunity against several known diseases, including tuberculosis, pneumonia, and malaria. It had been thought that Europeans gained immunity from these diseases from domesticated cattle and sheep. But Lalueza-Fox suggests that “epidemics affecting early farmers in the [Middle East] spread to continental Europe before they went themselves.”
LONDON, ENGLAND—Irving Finkel of the British Museum has translated the text of a Babylonian tablet that he says is the original version of the story of Noah’s Ark. The 3,700-year-old tablet describes a giant, circular coracle with wooden ribs that was waterproofed with two kinds of bitumen. He adds that Hebrew scholars would have encountered such texts during the Babylonian exile. The tablet was brought to England after World War II by a returning airman, whose son has loaned it to the British Museum, where it will on display with an ancient Babylonian map of the world. The text of the flood tablet helps explain the details of the map and the edge of the known world, where the ark was said to rest.
KILCHOAN, SCOTLAND—With the help of a stonemason, archaeologists have opened a window at Mingary Castle that was probably sealed 500 years ago. “Considering it’s been there so long, the mortar is incredibly hard, so it took a good half-hour and some gentle persuasion with a small pneumatic drill before they finally broke through,” said Jon Haylett of the Mingary Castle Preservation and Restoration Trust. The thirteenth-century castle, which overlooks the northwestern coast, had been fortified to withstand cannon fire. Earlier castle defenders would have used the windows to fire arrows and crossbolts down onto their attackers, in addition to using the windows for light and air. A groove around the window may have held a wooden board to close it when needed. The castle is being restored.
GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN—Links to the Sea Peoples, or Philistines, have been discovered in a building dating to 1100 B.C. unearthed at Jordan’s Tell Abu al-Kharaz. The Sea Peoples, descended from Southern or Eastern Europeans, settled in the Eastern Mediterranean. “We have, for instance, found pottery resembling corresponding items from Greece and Cyprus in terms of form and decoration, and also cylindrical loom weights for textile production that could be found in central and south-east Europe around the same time,” said Peter Fischer of the University of Gothenburg. The large, well-preserved stone building had two levels and defensive walls. “What surprises me the most is that we have found so many objects from far away. This shows that people were very mobile already thousands of years ago,” he added.
EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND—Some 60 bones from at least four adults and one child that were unearthed in a backyard in Edinburgh last year by consultants from GUARD Archaeology may have been used by medical students to study human anatomy in the early nineteenth century. The bones have small holes drilled in them that could have been used to articulate them with wire. Some of the bones also have shiny patches, suggested that they had been handled often. “Edinburgh’s medical schools acquired human remains legally from hangings, unclaimed poor, or, in fact, from illegally dug graves,” commented John Lawson of the City of Edinburgh Council Archaeology Service. These bones in particular may have been acquired illegally and then buried in order to hide them, or perhaps they were buried when they were no longer needed.
OXFORD, ENGLAND—Archaeologists have been debating the truth of the claims made by ancient Greek and Roman propagandists that the Carthaginians offered their children as sacrifices to the gods since the early twentieth century, when cemeteries holding the cremated bones of small children packed into urns were discovered along with the remains of sacrificed animals. Now, an international team of scholars argues that the ancient Carthaginians did indeed sacrifice their infant children. “…When you pull together all the evidence—archaeological, epigraphic and literary—it is overwhelming and, we believe, conclusive: they did kill their children, and on the evidence of the inscriptions, not just as an offering for future favors but fulfilling a promise that had already been made,” said Josephine Quinn of Oxford University. Based upon the number of burials that have been found, she estimates that 25 such sacrifices a year were made for a city of perhaps 500,000 people.
MT CARMEL, ISRAEL—Dani Nadel of the University of Haifa, Robert C. Power of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and Arlene M. Rosen from the University of Texas, Austin, have studied the use of plants in Raqefet Cave by members of the Natufian culture some 13,000 years ago. Last summer, the research team announced their discovery of impressions left by salvia and other species of mint under human burials in the cave. Phytoliths from other locations in the cave, including impressions in the rock that may have been used to grind or pound cereals, include wheat and barley grasses. Evidence of the grains was also found buried with the dead as part of what may have been an offering or a final meal.
FLORENCE, ITALY—Researchers at the University of Florence have developed a process to help preserve fragile human bones unearthed at archaeological sites. Currently, bones are stabilized with vinyl and acrylic polymers, which can cause damage to the information that the bones contain. Inspired by the way sea animals strengthen their shells, Luigi Dei and his colleagues grew aragonite on skeletal fragments dating to the Late Middle Ages. The controlled growth hardened the surface and the pores of the bones, reportedly making them 50 to 70 percent sturdier. “These results could have immediate impact for preserving archaeological and paleontological bone remains,” they concluded.
TEL AVIV, ISRAEL—Salvage excavations by the Israel Antiquities Authority ahead of a construction project in the village of Moshav Aluma have uncovered the ruins of a 1,500-year-old basilica with mosaic floors. The large church was situated near a main road that connected Ashkelon on the Mediterranean coast and Jerusalem, so it probably served as a center of Christian worship—one of the mosaics features a Christogram, an image made up of symbols that is surrounded by birds. Another section of mosaic contains the names ‘Mary’ and ‘Jesus’ as part of a dedicatory inscription written in Greek. The excavation also uncovered Byzantine glass vessels and a pottery workshop; early Islamic walls; and Ottoman garbage pits.
POZNAŃ, POLAND—An intact store of grain has been unearthed at the Neolithic urban center of Çatalhöyük, located in central Turkey. According to Arkadiusz Marciniak of Mickiewicz University, the four vessels of barley and an extinct species of wheat had been kept in a small room that had white walls. The room was in the northeastern part of a residential building that had burned down some 8,200 years ago.
CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA—A piece of a 35,000-year-old complex hunting weapon has been discovered on the Australasian island of Timor by a team led by Sue O’Connor of Australian National University. Wear on its notches and sticky residue suggest that the point would have been tied and glued to a wooden handle or inserted into a split hollow shaft, and used as a spear while hunting large fish at sea. Other complex weapons found in the region are only several hundred years old.
UPPSALA, SWEDEN—The mutation that enables adults to digest milk appeared independently in several parts of the world over the past 7,500 years, and it spread rapidly. It had been thought that the genes for milk-drinking spread because they provided Northern European farmers, who lived in areas with little sunlight, with a boost of calcium and vitamin D. Evolutionary biologist Oddný Sverrisdóttir of the University of Uppsala tested DNA from skeletal remains of eight people who lived in sunny northeastern Spain some 5,000 years ago. She found that none of them had the milk-drinking mutation, even though one third of modern Spaniards can digest lactase. A check of their mitochondrial DNA showed that these people were in fact ancestors of modern milk-drinking Spaniards. So what happened that gave milk-drinkers the advantage? Sverrisdóttir speculates that early farmers ate yogurt and cheese long before they could digest raw milk. When their crops failed and the stores were eaten, they may have turned to milk in desperation. “During normal times, if you were well-fed and you had diarrhea for days, it wouldn’t matter much. But if you were already starving, this would mean the difference between life and death. People would not have lived long enough to get their genes into the next generation. This was the new super-food for people who could tolerate it,” she explained.
TORONTO, ONTARIO—A large house containing at least 21 rooms is being excavated to the south of Egypt’s Sphinx, where a 4,500-year-old urban site is located. In a mound near the house, archaeologists uncovered the hind limbs of young cattle (the forelimbs were probably offered to deities), the seals of high-ranking officials, and leopard teeth. Two leopard teeth were also found in the house. Richard Redding of the University of Michigan and Ancient Egypt Research Associates (AERA), thinks that the teeth may have dropped out of a leopard-skin worn with the leopard’s head still attached. Illustrations from the Old Kingdom period depict high-ranking clergy wearing such garments. “We have very, very, high status individuals,” Redding said.
CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS—Adam Brant and Alfred Roca of the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign and their colleagues conducted a genetic study of elephants, using their dung, to try to clarify an account of the Battle of Raphia in 217 B.C. written by the Greek historian Polybius. The Egyptian pharaoh Ptolemy won the battle, but according to Polybius, his African war elephants were small and timid compared to the Asian elephants in the army of Antiochus III. African elephants are divided into smaller forest and larger savanna-dwelling species. Did Ptolemy perhaps fight with the smaller forest variety of elephant? Knowing that the range of African elephants did not extend into Egypt, Brandt thinks that Ptolemy probably traveled to Eritrea to find his war elephants. The team’s analysis concluded that today’s small, surviving population of elephants in Eritrea is related to the larger savanna variety, without genetic ties to forest elephants or Asian elephants. “Most likely, the Greek historian who wrote about the battle added in his own interpretation as to the relative size of the elephants. There were semi-mythological accounts in the ancient world that attributed great size to the elephants of India, and these were probably known to Polybius, and were likely the source of his belief that Indian elephants were the largest of all,” wrote Roca.
NARA, JAPAN—Uncooked grains of brown rice estimated to be between 2,600 and 2,400 years old, when intensive rice farming in paddies is thought to have begun in Japan, have been found. The 11 well-preserved grains, which did not have husks, were discovered in wet mud that protected them from the air. Tatsuya Inamura of Kyoto University will use DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating to identify and study the rice.
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS—Satellite images have allowed scholars to monitor archaeological sites in Syria during the ongoing civil war there. Jesse Casana of the University of Arkansas and the American Schools of Oriental Research’s Damascus Committee has identified moderate to severe war-related damage and looting at ten of the 30 sites that he analyzed. (It is known that six of the sites that showed no damage from space have well-documented war-related damage, however.) He reported his findings at the Annual Meeting of the Archaeological Institute of America, and estimated that as many as half of Syria’s archaeological sites are badly damaged, including the Roman city of Apamea, where a military garrison has taken over a tourist restaurant and more than 4,000 holes have been dug with heavy equipment by treasure hunters.
NEMEA, GREECE—Retired archaeologist Stephen Miller has suggested that the government of Greece allow private companies develop the country’s underdeveloped archaeological sites in exchange for a share of the revenue generated by the tourists. The budget of the Ministry of Culture has been cut by 52 percent since 2010, resulting in fewer guards and services at vulnerable archaeological sites. Under the plan, all sites and artifacts would remain the property of the Greek government. “The Ministry of Culture does some things very well: it does conservation work extremely well, they are very good at setting up exhibitions. They are lousy businessmen,” said Miller, who excavated at the ancient city of Nemea for 40 years. Those opposed to the idea are concerned that less expensive, underqualified individuals could end up in charge of excavations and site interpretation. “Archaeological sites and the country’s monuments belong to the whole of society. The protection, promotion and management of these sites is the duty of the state, as stipulated in the Constitution and laws of this country,” reads a response from The Association of Greek Archaeologists.
LIMA, PERU—Additional Sican tombs have been unearthed at a 1,000-year-old cemetery in Peru’s northern Lambayeque region. The site was first discovered last month during a construction project, when archaeologists were called to the scene. “At the moment, specialists have discovered between 35 and 40 tombs which are undergoing a process of conservation and consolidation. Archaeological material related with these tombs has also been discovered,” said site supervisor Humberto Salini. Other artifacts include ceramics, textiles, and gold-plated copper items that have all been transferred to the Culture Ministry.
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS—A new analysis of dog and wolf DNA collected from animals in areas of the world thought to be centers of dog domestication suggests that dogs and wolves split from a common ancestor between 9,000 and 34,000 years ago. This date is before the human transition to agricultural societies, indicating that the earliest dogs may have lived with hunter-gatherers. The study also shows that dogs are more closely related to each other than to wolves. Any genetic overlap between modern dogs and wolves is probably the result of later interbreeding. “We also found evidence for genetic exchange between wolves and jackals. The picture emerging from our analyses is that these exchanges may play an important role in shaping the diversification of canid species,” said John Novembre of the University of Chicago.