The main goal of the Project ‘Irep en Kemet’, Wine of Ancient Egypt, is to investigate the role and significance of the ancient Egyptian wine culture in the history of wine through the documentation and analysis of the corpus of wine in Ancient Egypt (iconography, texts, wine-jars and related objects), and to highlight its influence on ancient Greek, Roman and the modern wine cultures.
Our project starts the documentation of the corpus of wine in ancient Egypt with the viticulture and winemaking scenes in the ancient Egyptian tombs. This is a three-year scientific project, intended to run from December 30th 2010 until April 30th 2014, that is directed by Dr. Maria Rosa Guasch Jané at the Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas of the Universidade Nova in Lisbon (Portugal).
The project is funded by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) of the Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science, and it was gained through the competitive funding program Research & Development Projects in all Scientific Domains-2009 (90,000€).
The research team consists of Sofia Fonseca, Archaeologist and Egyptologist, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Egyptologist and Linguist, and Maria Rosa Guasch Jané, PhD in Pharmacy and Egyptologist.
Due to the fact that some of the work we plan to do and the human resources are not financially supported by the FCT in 2014 and also because we have no founds to extend our work from May 2014, we present this proposal hoping that you find it relevant and interesting to be supported.
We will need this amount to be able to finish the research and disseminate the results publishing several articles and one book with the corpus of images.
This project will be a step forward in understanding wine culture in Antiquity and will open a new field of study in Egyptology.
In Ancient Egypt, wine was a prestigious drink consumed mainly by royalty and the elite, presented to guests at banquets for entertainment, offered to gods in daily temple rituals and used in medical treatments. The ancient Egyptian wine culture is one of the world’s most ancient and with the most extensive records on wine production. Since the Predynastic Period (4000-3100 BC), wine jars were placed in the Egyptian tombs as funerary offerings.
Scenes of viticulture and winemaking were depicted on the walls of private tombs from the Old Kingdom Period (2575-2150 BC) through the Graeco-Roman times (332 BC-395 AD). The different steps include: grape harvest, treading, pressing, fermentation, closing the jars, stamping and labelling the jars, and finally storing the jars in the cellar [Tallet 1998; Murray 2000; Guasch-Jané 2008]. For example, in a scene from Nakht’s tomb [Figure 1] at Thebes (present Luxor) and dated to the Eighteenth Dynasty (1539-1292 BC), the grape harvest and the winemaking are represented: to the right, the scene shows two workers picking up the red grapes by hand and putting them in baskets; to the left, a group of four men are pressing the grapes in a vat with their feet and, besides this, there is a man taking the red juice (the must) that flows out while, on the top, the amphorae are sealed with a mud stopper.
During the New Kingdom Period (1539-1075 BC), wine jars [amphorae] had hieratic inscriptions on ink with details of the harvest: the year, the name of the product (irp [Erman 1926], which is wine, or shedeh [Erman 1930], a wine with a more elaborate preparation], the quality, the provenance, the property (royal, temple or private) and the name and title of the winemaker. Like the labels in the modern bottles of wine, the inscriptions on the New Kingdom wine jars give us information about the harvest and wine production [Guasch 2010]. These inscriptions on amphorae reveal that the ancient Egyptians considered this information relevant and necessary to be able to distinguish between wines. It was extremely important to know the vintage and the provenance of the product.
However, it is curious that no mention was made concerning the colour of wine, either white or red, on the inscriptions or any other documents. The symbolism of the ancient Egyptian wines was based on its red colour, not only because of the relation established between wine and the blood of the resurrection god Osiris, but also because of the reddish colour of the River Nile during the annual flood -with ferruginous sediments coming from the Ethiopian mountains-, when the harvest time for grapes started [Poo 1986, 1995]. Grapes and the wine were symbol of resurrection, and this is still in use in Coptic iconography today.
The Egyptian mythology related the wine only to the red colour, and no textual references to white wine from the Dynastic period (3100-343 BC) have been found in Egypt up to now.
The origin of the European wine culture is widely regarded as Greek and Roman. Classical authors, such as the Latin poet Virgil (70-19 BC), Strabo (1st century BC) or Athenaneus of Naucratis (2nd-3rd century AD), spoke about the quality of the Egyptian wines. The first mention of white wine in Egypt is from Athenaeus of Naucratis, in his book The Deipnosophistae he explains that Mareotis wine, in the area of Lake Mariut near Alexandria, was “excellent, white and enjoyable, aromatic…” [Athenaeus 1961].
STUDY OF THE COLOUR OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN WINES
In order to study the kind (colour) of the wines that were made in ancient Egypt, we developed an analytical method [Guasch-Jané et al 2004] for archaeological residues of wine using the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in tandem (LC/MS/MS) technique. Two compounds were identified in archaeological residue samples from Tutankhamun’s amphorae: tartaric acid, as grape marker, and syringic acid derived from malvidin, the latter being the main compound responsible for the red colour of grapes and wines, as red grape marker [Guasch-Jané et al 2004, 2008]. The results revealed, for the first time, that in the New Kingdom Period (1539-1075 BC) three kinds of wines were made: red [Guasch-Jané 2004, 2008], white [Guasch-Jané et al 2006a, 2008] and a more elaborate red wine, called shedeh [Guasch-Jané 2006b, 2008].
The analytical results added new information to the inscription on the amphorae: about the type of wine they contained.
The origin and nature of the shedeh, which has no translation, was a mystery since a century ago, with pomegranates or grapes having been proposed as a raw material. According to Salt papyrus 825 in the British Museum (BM 10051) of the Late Period (715-332 BC), the only text found so far that mentions the elaboration of the shedeh, it was filtered and heated; nevertheless, due to damage in the Salt papyrus, the botanical source of shedeh remained unknown [Derchain 1965; Tallet 1995, 2010; Guasch-Jané, 2008]. The results of analysing a sample of a residue from the shedeh amphora found in Tutankhamun’s Burial chamber (JE 62315, Carter no. 206), bearing the inscription “Year 5, shedeh of very good quality of the Estate of Aten of the Western River, chief vintner Rer” [Černy, 1965] confirmed that shedeh was a red grape wine [Guasch-Jané 2006b, 2008].
Recent research suggested the use of the three kinds of wines (a red wine, a white wine and shedeh, respectively) found in Tutankhamun’s Burial chamber were for the King’s three-step resurrection ritual, while the rest of wines found in the Annexe chamber were offerings of the usual kind for sustenance in the afterlife [Guasch-Jané 2011].
DOCUMENTING THE VITICULTURE AND WINEMAKING SCENES
Our project starts the documentation of the corpus of wine in ancient Egypt with the viticulture and winemaking scenes, not only because of the extensive information they provide, but also for many aspects that are less studied. Previous studies on Ancient Egyptian wine production only provide records of few of the scenes while several aspects such as the presence of white grapes in the tombs’ iconography, or the elaboration of shedeh, are obscure.
The types and forms of the vines that are represented in the scenes, and the different heights of the vine tree or its shape are still not fully studied and classified. The same for the workers involved in the grape harvest, the way they picked the grapes as well as the kind of baskets they used for transporting the grapes to the press. Furthermore, the type and material of the press (or deposit) where the grapes were treaded needs to be studied in-depth, because these scenes are the only references as no archaeological evidence has been found. Another aspect we aim to study is the extraction of grape juice using a sack-press.
The fermentation process and the closing of the wine-jars, or the strict control of closing and labelling wine-jars during the New Kingdom Period, revealed by the amphorae and their inscriptions, are even more interesting aspects to be investigated.
Regarding the presence of white grapes in the iconography, it is still under discussion. It has been suggested that a tomb from Deir El-Bersheh of the Middle Kingdom Period (1975-1640 BC) may show the production of white wine, since the pressing scene directly follows the harvesting scene where greenish-coloured grapes could be represented [Montet 1913; Murray 2000]. The elaboration of the shedeh represented in the scenes is also doubtful, and there is a unique reference from the tomb of Baqet III (no. 15) in Beni Hassan that might show a filtering and a heating process [Tallet 1995].
METHODOLOGICAL PLAN FOR THE PROPOSAL
We plan a five steps methodology addressed to:
1. Analyse the scenes and translate the texts.
2. Develop a database: We will design and create a database hosted by DBMS to include all the data and the images, which will be accessible on-line to the scientific community and general public and presented using GIS technology.
3. Create an archaeological map of the ancient Egyptian viticulture and winemaking scenes: A Geographic Information System (GIS) will be defined by Miquel Àngel Vargas at Laboratori d’Informació Geogràfica i Teledetecció, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (LIGIT-UAB) and used to construct the project database, which will also include all the scenes. The applications implemented will allow access for further query of the information. Following an initial phase where requirements analysis, functional specifications and interface design will be produced, the system will be developed to provide the tools and applications required to management, support and maintain the database. A user manual will be elaborated.
The databases created during the project (bibliographic and iconographic) will be accessible on-line using GIS technology. An archaeological map of the viticulture and winemaking scenes will be created with the Egyptian archaeological sites, tombs, iconography and texts. We will also develop software applications to handheld devices, such as mobile phones and tablet computers, so that the project’s website can be accessible from almost anywhere at anytime.
4. Technology transfer and dissemination:
We will create a database with the corpus of scenes of viticulture and winemaking and the bibliography related to it. The project’s website [www.wineofancientegypt.com] will allow dissemination of this research and of the archaeological map. The manuscripts that we plan to publish in international peer-reviewed scientific journals with the research results will be posted in the website and also the papers addressed to the general public. Furthermore, the communications in congresses presenting the results of this project will be posted in the website, as well as the corresponding conference proceedings.
Our aim is to:
4a) Publish one book containing the corpus of scenes of viticulture and winemaking.
4b) Present at least three papers in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.
4c) Develop and post a video explaining the project and the research developed.
4d) Present lectures in 2 congresses: the IV British Egyptology Congress to be held in London in September 2014 and the XI International Congress of the Egyptologists in 2015 (exact dates still not confirmed).
5. Archaeological survey: We will ask for permission to carry out an archaeological survey in 2014 of two of the unstudied and unpublished tombs in Thebes having viticulture and winemaking scenes for further excavation work.
We plan to extend our research to the other aspects related to wine that are represented in the ancient Egyptian iconography: banquet scenes and wine offering scenes in tombs, temples or any other monuments. Furthermore, we also aim to document the wine jars, their inscriptions, and related objects, which will be further included in our project’s website. The expected results are to relate the process of wine elaboration of the ancient Egyptians to the traditional method still used in Europe and to unveil the ancient Egyptian wine culture legacy in the Mediterranean region through the compilation and study of the iconography, texts and artefacts.
FUNDS REQUIRED IN THE PROJECT
Travel expenses (mission and congress)=$8,000
Total amount required (12 months)=$25,500
Doctoral researcher salary=$25,000
Post-doc researcher salary=$35,000
Total amount required (12 months)=$60,000
Having noticed that wine production in ancient Egypt has not been thoroughly studied or documented, the ‘Irep en Kemet’ project team is documenting and studying, for the first time, the complete corpus of viticulture and winemaking scenes depicted on the walls of the ancient Egyptian private tombs, being the most important data to study the history and legacy of wine production in the Mediterranean region.
The different elements of the harvest works and winemaking depicted in the tombs will be classified and analysed considering the elaboration of wine and compared to our traditional European elaboration method. The viticulture and winemaking scenes are being documented and analysed, and the hieroglyphic texts attached to the images translated and studied, to create a database of the Egyptian tombs having viticulture and winemaking scenes.
Our team is developing a database in two different parts: the bibliography and the scenes of viticulture and winemaking. The research methodology includes the bibliographic compilation with all the books, articles, websites and on-line articles as well as existing databases related to wine, viticulture and winemaking in ancient Egypt. And also the compilation of the all scenes with all the iconography and texts related to viticulture and winemaking in the Egyptian private tombs from the whole archaeological sites in Egypt (Fonseca 2012; Guasch 2012).
The bibliographical database (see example in Figure 2) includes the following items about each reference: serial number, type of article/book, authors, title, website, online link, periodical/ journal/ encyclopaedia/ dictionary, edition, editors, pages, plates/ plans, publisher, place of publication, year of publication, author abbreviation and remarks. It is being recorded in Excel Sheet and presented by Filemaker Pro11 software.
The SCENES database includes the following items (see Figure 3) about each scene: record number and scene description with the different steps according to the theme, that is, viticulture or winemaking. The steps represented in the viticulture scenes include: vinery, taking care of the vine, grape harvest and counting the baskets. In the winemaking scenes, the steps represented are: transporting grapes to a press, pressing grapes, heating and filtering, pressing the remains in a sack press, filling wine jars, fermentation, offerings to goddess Renenutet, wine tasting, sealing the wine jars, labelling wine jars, counting wine jars, transporting wine jars to a cellar, refrigeration during fermentation, and storing wine jars in a cellar. The scene-detail database will also include: scene details, annotations, scene type and scene condition, text (inscriptions and translation) and image/photo, dating (period, dynasties and kings), location (provenance, governorate, archaeological site), provenance (governorate, archaeological site, tomb name and number, and location inside the tomb) and present location (if it is the same as provenance, if it’s a museum then location inside the museum and inventory number, and others if it’s not a museum). Finally, the tomb information (type of tomb, tomb’s owner and name and titles of the tomb’s owner) will be included and the bibliographical references related to the scene will be listed. The data is being recorded in Excel Sheet and presented by Filemaker Pro11 software.
Bibliographical research has been carried out at the United Kingdom libraries:
- Griffith Institute, Oxford University (http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/).
- Sackler library, Oxford University (http://www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/sackler).
- The Egypt Exploration Society (EES) in London (http://www.ees.ac.uk/)
- Department of Ancient Egypt and Sudan of The British Museum in London (http://www.britishmuseum.org/about_us/departments/ancient_egypt_and_sudan.aspx), in London.
Furthermore, the different elements of the grape harvest and wine production that are depicted in the tombs are going to be analysed, classified and then compared to the traditional winemaking method. The wine production and any representation of the three kinds of wines (white wine, red wine and shedeh) will be investigated. The hieroglyphic texts accompanying the scenes will be studied, categorized, and the translation and commentary will be included. Moreover, the titles of the owners of these tombs having viticulture and winemaking scenes will be studied to unveil the existence of wine-makers, and to know the different specific titles related with wine production.
PRESENT RESEARCH AND FUTURE GOALS
At this moment, we are on the second year of the project. We have completed the bibliographical database, which has now more than 190 entries, and we are finishing the scenes database compilation with more than 100 tombs, some of them unpublished. We have recorded images and unpublished scenes from the Theban necropolis using the archives of the Griffith Institute in Oxford University (UK), the British Museum in London (UK) and the Metropolitan Museum in New York (USA).
The next step will be the development of the project website with both databases and including the unpublished images of the scenes of viticulture and winemaking in the Egyptian tombs. This information will be accessible to the scientific community and the general public approaching our research to a
We plan to develop a photographic survey on the unpublished tombs in Egypt in 2013 and do research on the Egyptology libraries in Cairo:
- Institut Français d’Archeologie Oriental (IFAO, http://www.ifao.egnet.net/),
- American University in Cairo (AUC, http://www.aucegypt.edu).
The expected results, apart from compiling all the corpus of relieves and paintings in scenes of Egyptian tombs, and making it available for researchers and general public who might be interested, are to unveil the high level of ancient Egyptians in manufacturing of wine as we can see in the detailed information recorded in the New Kingdom inscriptions on amphorae.
Project’s preliminary results have been presented as oral communications IN CONGRESSES.
A lecture and a poster entitled “Irep en Kemet Project: Creating the corpus of wine in Ancient Egypt” has been presented in the Fourth International Euromediterranean Conference (Euromed 2012) on Cultural Heritage and Digital Libraries, Amathus (Cyprus), 29th October-3rd November 2012.
A lecture entitled “Complete Study of Viticulture and Winemaking in the Egyptian Tombs: Database Compilation of wine iconography in Ancient Egypt” was presented in the IV Jornadas de Jovens em Investigação Arqueológica (JIA) held at University of Algarve, Faro (Portugal), 11th-14th May 2011.
We also presented the project to the History Department at Viçosa University (Brasil): “Irep en Kemet, the Wine of Ancient Egypt", The origins of wine culture in the Mediterranean, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, September 25th 2012.
And to a more general public “Historia del vi a l’antic Egipte” at Club Torres, organized by Torres Winery at the School of Tourism, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain) in June 28th-30th and July 6th-8th, 11th 2011.
Preliminary results have been PUBLISHED in four ARTICLES:
- Guasch-Jané, M.R., Fonseca, S., Ibrahim, M. “Irep en Kemet project: creating the corpus of wine in ancient Egypt”, Fourth International Euro-Mediterranean Conference (Euromed 2012) on Cultural Heritage and Digital Libraries, Amathus (Cyprus), 29th October -3rd November 2012, Progress in Cultural Preservation Short Papers (2012): 181-86.
- Fonseca, S., Ibrahim, M. “Documentation of viticulture and winemaking in the Egyptian tombs”, Actas JIA 2011 (2012), vol. 1: 17-22.
- Fonseca, S., Guasch-Jané, M.R., Ibrahim, M. “El vino en antiguo Egipto”, Revista Club Torres (2012): 65.
- Fonseca, S., Guasch-Jané, M.R., Ibrahim, M. “O vinho no antigo Egipto: uma história mediterrânea”, Mundo Antigo 1 (2011): 131-46.Duration of project: