FALKIRK, SCOTLAND—Culture 24 reports that excavations at a settlement located outside the walls of Camelon Roman Fort in central Scotland have uncovered Roman socketed bolt heads, a spiraled ox-goad, 12 hobnails, traces of cereal grains, and the possible remains of a bread oven. Many of the artifacts, and industrial waste products from iron smelting, were retrieved from pits dated to between 41 B.C. and A.D. 116. Experts from Guard Archaeology say the bolt heads are blunted, suggesting that they may have been used by the soldiers stationed at the fort for target practice. The ox-goad, when placed on a wooden shaft, may have been used to control oxen pulling a plow. Some of the recovered nails bear traces of mineralized leather, but none of them were found corroded together, so they were probably not all from the same sandal or boot. The excavation also yielded pottery dated from the mid-first century to the third century that had been imported from Northern Gaul. To read about a silver hoard discovered in Scotland, go to "Lost and Found (Again)."
CORK, IRELAND—The Irish Times reports that an international team of researchers collected data on animal bones and seeds from archaeological digs across southeast Ireland, and analyzed pollen extracted from a sediment core taken from a lake in Kilkenny, to learn what people ate between 2,700 and 2,000 years ago. “Cattle and pigs provided dairy and meat, barley was a staple, and we also have evidence of a variety of wheats, including spelt, emmer, and naked wheat,” said Katharina Becker of University College Cork. The researchers partnered with baker Declan Ryan to attempt to recreate baked products of Ireland's Iron Age. Since houses from the period do not contain recognizable hearths, Becker suggests that people may have gathered at boiling pits to eat. She speculates that the Iron-Age diet was probably plant-based, with meat and dairy foods served on special occasions. For more, go to "The Vikings in Ireland."
ORKNEY, SCOTLAND—A structure constructed of stone slabs up to 13 feet long has been found beneath a huge midden at the Ness of Brodgar by a team led by researchers from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute. According to a report in BBC News, archaeologists think the building, which measures some 33 feet wide, may have been the first structure at the site. Its unusual stones have rounded edges and may have been brought from another site and reused. “Perhaps they may be part of a stone circle that predates the main Ness site. It is a bit of a mystery and we won’t know more until we do more work,” said site director Nick Card. Most of the other structures at the Ness of Brodgar were made of pieces of flagstone and may also have had slate roofs. The site sits between two Neolithic monuments, the Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones of Stenness, and is thought to have served as a gathering place for more than 1,000 years. To read in-depth about this site, go to "Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart."
OXFORD, ENGLAND—Live Science reports that David Howell of the Bodleian Libraries and colleagues have discovered pictographic scenes under the layer of gesso that covers Codex Selden, a 20-page document created in southern Mexico in the sixteenth century from a long strip of deer hide. They used a technique known as hyperspectral imaging to reveal the pictures beneath the layer of chalk and plaster, which presumably was applied to the document to prepare it for reuse. The researchers analyzed seven pages of the codex—one of only 20 such texts produced in the Americas before the arrival of Europeans to have survived—and found glyphs and figures formed with red, yellow, and orange organic paints. Some of the images may record genealogical information, including two figures thought to represent siblings, since they are connected with a red umbilical cord. Other figures depict people walking with sticks or spears, and some of the female figures have red hair or headdresses. The name of one individual preserved in Codex Selden resembles that of an ancestral figure recorded in other codices, but more research is needed into the possibility that the documents refer to the same person. For more, go to "The Maya Codices."
IONA, SCOTLAND—The Press and Journal reports that a site believed to have been a prehistoric village has been unearthed on the island of Iona. The island is best known for the monastery founded in the sixth century A.D. by the monk Columba, who took refuge there after being exiled from his native Ireland. The new discoveries, made during a survey prior to building an extension of the island’s primary school, include pottery, flints, and other materials that may date back as far as 2,500 years. The excavation, which was led by Clare Ellis of Argyll Archaeology, also unearthed an extension to the island’s medieval wall. “What is most exciting to me is that the lines of the property that exist now are very similar to the property lines that existed more than 2,000 years ago,” said Ellis. To read in-depth about archaeology in Scotland, go to “Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart.”
BOLZANO, ITALY—Researchers have used genetic analysis to determine which animals were used to make the clothes worn by Ötzi the Iceman, according to a report in Live Science. The results show that Ötzi, who died 5,300 years ago in the Ötztal Alps on the border of Austria and Italy and whose well-preserved mummy was discovered by hikers in 1991, wore an outfit fashioned from a range of animals likely selected for the different properties of their skin or fur. His shoes were made from hardy cattle leather, his leggings from more supple goatskin. His coat was made from sheep, for warmth, his hat from brown bear, and his quiver from deer. The researchers believe the evidence indicates that Ötzi obtained at least some of his garments or the material to make them via trade. “It is probable that the Iceman was not a hermit,” said Niall O’Sullivan of the University College Dublin in Ireland and the Institute for Mummies and the Iceman. “He likely traded furs or domestic animals.” To read more about Ötzi, go to “Heart Attack of the Mummies.”
ABAKAN, RUSSIA—In the Russian republic of Khakassia in southern Siberia, archaeologists excavating a Bronze Age cemetery have unearthed the grave of a woman who was buried with an unusual number of artifacts. The Siberian Times reports that the woman, who was accompanied by the remains of a child, lived sometime between 2500 and 1800 B.C., and was likely a person of high status. She was buried with a bronze knife, some 100 animal teeth pendants, and a dress decorated with about 1,500 beads. The excavation director, Andrey Polyakov, was particularly excited by the discovery of a ceramic incense burner in the grave, which was decorated with sun motifs that are similar to those found on rock art in the region. "Its importance is hard to overestimate," says Polyakov. "All such images previously discovered had been found only on cliffs or separate stones. Now there is the prospect to find out when they were made." To read more about archaeology in the area, go to "Letter From Siberia: Fortress of Solitude."