YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND—Could men from Central Asia have brought Indo-European languages to India thousands of years ago? Live Science reports that archaeogeneticist Martin Richards of the University of Huddersfield and his colleagues conducted an analysis of genetic material collected from modern populations living in India, where ancient DNA rarely survives in the hot climate. The data from the study suggest that multiple waves of people migrated into the subcontinent from Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iran over the past 20,000 years. In particular, Richards and his colleagues say between 4,000 and 3,800 years ago, the Y-chromosome subtype associated with men of the Yamnaya culture appeared in Indian populations. The Yamnaya lived between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, are known for their pit graves and wheeled horse chariots, and spoke a precursor of Indo-European languages. The Yamnaya subgroup is now carried by about 17.5 percent of Indian men—more often in the north than in the south. So, did Yamnaya warriors conquer northern India, or perhaps migrate there and have large families? “It’s very easy for Y-chromosome composition to change very quickly,” Richards said. “Just because individual men can have a lot more children than women can.” To read more about Bronze Age Indo-European cultures, go to "The Wolf Rites of Winter."
HUELVA, SPAIN—According to a report in The Local, gold and silver Roman coins have been found at a copper mining site in southwestern Spain. Luis Iglesias, director of archaeology at Atalaya Mining, said the cache of second-century coins is thought to have been stored in a leather pouch by a wealthy resident of the Roman mining settlement of Orium. According to Iglesias, the location of the coins at the site suggests that the ancient settlement stretched further west than had been previously thought. The area will be covered with a metal sheet to protect any additional artifacts in the ground. To read about the impact of ancient mining on Spain's environment, go to "Spain's Lead-Lined Lakes."
MEXICO CITY, MEXICO—A tunnel traveling from Teotihuacan’s Pyramid of the Moon to the center of the plaza in front of the structure has been discovered by a team of scientists from Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History and the National Autonomous University of Mexico, according to an Associated Press report. The researchers used an electrical resistivity tomography to look for the tunnel, which sits about 30 feet underground, since similar tunnels have been found in front of other monuments built by the people of Teotihuacan, including the Pyramid of the Sun and the Temple of the Feathered Serpent. The scan also suggests that the tunnel was filled in antiquity. Such tunnels are thought to represent the underworld, and may have been used for rituals to re-enact the creation of life, plants, and food. To read more about Teotihuacan, go to "Mythological Mercury Pool."
JENA, GERMANY—According to a report in Science, researchers led by Johannes Krause and Cosimo Posth of the Max Planck Institute for Human History have made the surprising discovery that Neanderthals may have decended from a female member of the lineage of modern humans. They sequenced mitochondrial DNA, which is inherited through the maternal line, from a 120,000-year-old Neanderthal femur excavated from southwest Germany’s Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave in 1937. They then compared the data with the mitochondrial DNA of other Neanderthals and Neanderthal ancestors, Denisovans—a hominin closely related to Neanderthals, and modern humans. The study suggests that sometime between 470,000 and 220,000 years ago, a female relative of modern humans interbred with a male Neanderthal, possibly in the Middle East. Over many generations, her mitochondrial DNA may have eventually replaced Neanderthals’ ancestral mitochondrial DNA. The study could explain why Neanderthals and Denisovans, who have similar nuclear DNA, do not share similar mitochondrial DNA. Critics say analysis of mitochondrial DNA from additional Neanderthal samples is needed in order to show the material wasn’t inherited from a common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. To read more about how the study of ancient mitochondrial DNA is revealing suprising connections between ancient human species, go to "Our Tangled Ancestry."
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH—Archaeologist Lisbeth Louderback of the National History Museum of Utah, and botanist Bruce Pavlik of the University of Utah’s Red Butte Garden, analyzed residues obtained from ancient grinding tools found in southern Utah’s Escalante Valley, according to a report in The Salt Lake Tribune. They identified starch granules of Solanum jamesii, a wild potato species native to North America, on the 10,900-year-old metates and manos. The small, nutritious tuber still grows primarily in the Four Corners region, where it is most abundant in the highlands of New Mexico. In Utah, however, Louderback and Pavlik note that the plants only grow near archaeological sites. Were the plants carried to Utah nearly 11,000 years ago? Genetic studies of Solanum jamesii, planned with scientists at the USDA Potato Genebank, could help to determine if the Utah plants had been transported, manipulated, or domesticated by hunter gatherers. To read in-depth about early Native Americans, go to "America, in the Beginning."
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH—Modern concrete, when placed in the presence of sea water, erodes over time. According to a report in BBC News, scientists led by Marie Jackson of the University of Utah examined samples of ancient Roman concrete from ancient harbor structures with an electron microscope, X-ray micro-diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in an effort to learn why it gained strength from exposure to sea water. The tests, conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, revealed crystals of a rare mineral known as aluminum tobermorite growing throughout the samples of concrete, in addition to a porous mineral called phillipsite. The mineral crystals continued to grow in the Roman mix of volcanic ash and lime, which reinforced the concrete over long-term exposure to sea water. A similar chemical reaction has been detected in underwater volcanoes. “Their technique was based on building very massive structures that are really quite environmentally sustainable and very long-lasting,” Jackson said. To read in-depth about how Romans used concrete, go to "Rome's Lost Aqueduct."
MEXICO CITY, MEXICO—Anthropologists studying remains from a recently unearthed Aztec tzompantli, or trophy skull rack, were suprised to discover skulls belonging to women and children, according to the BBC. Built between 1485 and 1502, the rack was thought to have been used by the Aztecs to display the heads of enemy warriors who were ritually sacrificed. "We were expecting just men, obviously young men, as warriors would be, and the thing about the women and children is that you'd think they wouldn't be going to war," says biological anthropologist Rodrigo Bolanos of the National Institute of Anthropology and History. "Something is happening that we have no record of." More than 600 skulls have been found, and the tzompantli is still being excavated, so archaeologists expect to find more. To read in-depth about the excavations, go to "Under Mexico City."
ROME, ITALY—Researchers have discovered distinct patterns in the facial features of individuals buried at three separate Roman grave sites in Italy, LiveScience reports. Employing a statistical technique often used in criminal forensics called geometric morphometrics, anthropologists were able to precisely map the shape of skulls found at each site in order to determine if the people buried there showed evidence of being related or resembling one another. Of the three cemeteries chosen for the project, one is located on Isola Sacra, a tiny island southwest of Rome, which was mostly used by the city's middle class, another is at Velia on the southwestern Italian coast, where researchers expected to see evidence of the Greek origin of the region's Roman-era population, and the third is at Castel Malnome on the outskirts of Rome, which was used for lower class laborers. In individuals from Isola Sacra and Velia, the team was indeed able to discern visible similarities that confirm the common genetic background of both communities, but in Castel Malnome, a burial ground for itinerant workers and veterans from around the Roman Empire, such patterns were absent. To read more about the population of ancient Rome, go to "Rome's Imperial Port."
VORDINGBORG, DENMARK—Archaeologists working at Borgring, a Viking ring fortress on the island of Zealand in Denmark, have uncovered evidence that challenges conventional wisdom about the site's lifespan and purpose, according to a report by ScienceNordic. One of five famous ringed fortifications in Denmark, Borgring was likely built around A.D. 980 by the Viking King Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson, who, perhaps under pressure from the Holy Roman Empire, agreed to be baptized in the year 965, and is credited with the Christanization of the Danes. While many scholars have traditionally understood Borgring as a single-purpose structure meant to project Bluetooth's power or cement the spread of Christrianity, recently uncovered ceramic sherds at the site dating to the eleventh century suggest that the fortress continued as a settlement for hundreds of years. To read more about Harald Bluetooth, go to "Bluetooth's Fortress."
GEZER, ISRAEL—Archaeologists excavating at the Canaanite site of Gezer have unearthed the remains of inhabitants who appear to have perished when Egyptians destroyed the city in the thirteenth century B.C. Haaretz reports that the remains belonged to two adults and one child, and were found in a room full of ash and collapsed mud brick that was part of a large building thought to be the residence of a Canaanite prince. Gezer was one of many Canaanite cities that fell under Egyptian control during the New Kingdom period, and that eventually rebelled. According to Egyptian inscriptions, the pharaoh Merneptah reconquered the city. “The heavy destruction suggests that the Egyptian pharaoh encountered much resistance from the Gezerites," says excavation co-director Steven Ortiz of the Tandy Institute for Archaeology. To read in-depth about the Egyptian occupation of Canaan, go to "Egypt's Final Redoubt in Canaan."
CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA—The discovery of a lead musket ball suggests that archaeologists in Charleston, South Carolina, may have located a Revolutionary War–era trench, The Post and Courier reports. Excavations are ongoing behind the city's historic Aiken-Rhett house, where a team from the College of Charleston hopes to uncover British military earthworks used in the 1780 Siege of Charleston. The ball and trench constitute the first physical evidence of British lines from the battle, which have eluded researchers for years. To read more about archaeology in the Low Country, go to “Off the Grid: Colonial Dorchester, South Carolina.”
ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI—Archaeologists working in St. Louis have uncovered evidence that contradicts convential understandings of the city's founding, according to a report by St. Louis Public Radio. A team led by archaeologist Michael Meyer of the Missouri Department of Transportation has conducted excavations ahead of construction on the Poplar Street Bridge, which spans the Mississippi River and connects the city to East St. Louis, in Illinois. They have uncovered evidence, including trade beads, brass goods, and ceramics, which indicates both French and Native settlement in the area prior to 1764, the recorded year of St. Louis' founding by French fur trader Pierre Lacléde. While the region is famed for the Mississipan mound cities that flourished for centuries before European arrival, it has been previously accepted that the area of St. Louis was sparsely populated when Lacléde and his followers arrived. To read more about archaeology in Missouri, go to "Digging the Scorched Earth."
LUXOR, EGYPT—Thousands of stone blocks being kept in storage near Luxor turn out to be remains of the temple of the 18th-Dynasty pharaoh Thutmose I (r. ca. 1504-1492 B.C.), according to a report from Science & Scholarship in Poland. Egyptologist Jadwiga Iwaszczuk of the Institute of Mediterranean and Oriental Cultures of the Polish Academy of Sciences first identified some of the fragments, which were housed in a tomb that is used as a storage facility by the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities. The fragments were excavated in the 1970s, and at the time were thought to belong to a temple built during the reign of Hatshepsut, who was Thutmose I’s daughter. In fact, that temple was discovered in recent years in the Ramesseum, the memorial temple of Ramesses II. Iwaszczuk identified the fragments as belonging to the temple of Thutmose I because the temple’s name appeared on some of them. Iwaszczuk and her team have now identified thousands of stone blocks that are part of the temple. Among their notable finds is an early portrayal, for the area, of a battle scene featuring chariots. For more, go to “Egypt’s Final Redoubt in Canaan.”
SILSDEN, ENGLAND—Archaeologists digging at a future construction site in northern England have unearthed the remains of a large collective burial monument known as a barrow, reports Keighley Online. Measuring around 100 feet wide, the barrow consists of two ditches and was in use around 5,000 to 4,500 years ago, during the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. At the center of the site, the team unearthed an incised funerary urn containing cremated remains, likely the barrow's primary burial. The team plans to X-ray the urn before removing its contents. Other finds included pottery, stone tools, and another cremated burial dating to the early Bronze Age. To read in-depth about this period in British prehistory, go to “Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart.”
KRAPINA, CROATIA—Evidence found in teeth at a Neanderthal site in Croatia points to rudimentary attempts at dentistry 130,000 years ago, according to a report in The Independent. David Frayer of the University of Kansas analyzed the teeth—found in the early 20th century at the site of Krapina—and observed grooves, scratches, and chips consistent with the use of a simple toothpick-like tool. Based on the pattern of markings on the individual's teeth, Frayer believes the Neanderthal may have been attempting to ease the pain of an impacted molar. To read more on the archaeology of dentistry, go to “Not So Pearly Whites.”
BERLIN, GERMANY—At a 12,000-year-old temple in southeastern Turkey, researchers have discovered parts of human skulls stripped of flesh and carved with deep grooves, according to a report from Science Magazine. The temple, known as Göbekli Tepe, is well-known for its structures and carved reliefs, which predate the development of agriculture. Starting in the mid-1990s, researchers discovered tens of thousands of animal bones at the site, with around 700 fragments of human bone mixed in. More than half of the human bone fragments analyzed so far have been parts of skulls. A detailed study of three of these skull fragments found that their flesh had been removed and grooves carved from front to back. One fragment also had a hole drilled in it. “The carvings consist of many deep cuts—somebody clearly did it intentionally,” said Julia Gresky of the German Archaeological Institute. The site’s stone artwork includes depictions of heads that are missing or lopped off, and the heads of some stone statues appear to have been intentionally removed. To read in-depth about Göbekli Tepe, go to “The World's First Temple.”
AVEBURY, ENGLAND—Archaeologists working at Avebury, the Neolithic stone circle in Wiltshire thought to be the world's largest, have uncovered a mysterious square formation at the site's center, according to a report in The Guardian. Using radar technology, a team led by University of Leicester's Mark Gillings uncovered hidden stones marking the footprint of what they believe was a wooden building dating to around 3500 B.C. Gillings and his colleagues have concluded that the square, which measures nearly 100 feet on each side, formed a monument to what must have been a very important structure. The find may also solve a riddle that has challenged researchers since the 1930s, when the marmalade magnate Alexander Keiller conducted major exavations at Avebury. Keiller found several buried standing stones placed in a line leading to an upright obelisk, as well as postholes and grooves indicating the existence of a building. Gillings now believes that what Keiller assumed to be a medieval structure was in fact the original Neolithic building around which the entire circle developed over centuries. To read more on Neolithic henges, including Avebury, go to “The World of Stonehenge.”
TEL AVIV, ISRAEL—A team led by Tel Aviv University archaeologist Erez Ben-Yosef has discovered colorful Iron Age textiles at the site of the Timna copper mines in Israel's Negev Desert. Haaretz reports that the textiles, which include more than 100 fragments of both wool and linen, date to the tenth century B.C. and would likely have been worn by copper workers. It had been previously believed that workers at the mines, which were associated with the Kingdom of Edom, were relatively low-status or even slaves. But the the discovery of richly decorated fabrics suggests they belonged to the upper reaches of Edomite society. “If a person had the exceptional knowledge to ‘create copper,’ he was considered well-versed in an extremely sophisticated technology,” says Ben-Yosef. “He would have been considered magical or supernatural, and his social status would have reflected this.” To read in-depth about early textiles, go to “Dressing for the Ages.”
RZESZOW, POLAND—While while on vacation in the village of Kosina in southeastern Poland, an archaeologist stumbled upon a clay figurine that he believes dates back to around 5000 B.C. Science and Scholarship in Poland reports that Piotr Alagierski was walking in a cultivated field when he came across the nearly 3-inch-long clay figure that appears to have been made by some of the first farming communities in the region. According to Alagierski, the figurine is reminiscent of similar artifacts found in Slovakia and Romania but differs from known Polish examples in its lifelike rather than exaggerated depicition of the human form. Alagierski plans to conduct excavations at the site, where he also found fragments of ceramic vessels and obsidian, and the object will undergo chemical tests that may help to determine the origin of the clay. For more on archaeology in Poland, go to “Letter from Poland: Warsaw Remembers.”
DEVON, ENGLAND—New radiocarbon dating at a site in southwest England suggests it was in use for 1,200 years longer than had been thought, according to a report from BBC News. Evidence at the rural site, called Ippleden, indicates it was occupied from the fourth century B.C. Sherds of pottery uncovered by archaeologists from the University of Exeter show that the site’s residents traded with people from afar and enjoyed delicacies such as wine and olive oil. According to archaeologist Stephen Rippon, the researchers initially believed the site was only used during the Roman period, but now recognize that it was occupied during the pre-Roman Iron Age as well. They believe it was a farming community, based on the discovery of remains of a granary. In addition, debris from iron working was unearthed near the settlement’s edge, suggesting it may have hosted industrial activity. For more, go to “Letter from Wales: Hillforts of the Iron Age.”