ŞANLIURFA, TURKEY—Hürriyet Daily News reports that a floor mosaic has been discovered in a necropolis of nearly 80 rock-cut tombs in southeastern Turkey, near the ninth-century Urfa Castle. The mosaic depicts two men and two women, whose images are each contained in a separate square surrounded by a border. The portraits are thought to represent people been buried in the tombs. Syriac inscriptions in the mosaic are thought to date to the Edessa Kingdom, which reigned from 132 B.C. to A.D. 639. For more on archaeology in Turkey, go to “In Search of a Philosopher’s Stone.”
NOVOSIBIRSK, RUSSIA—Live Science reports that a 1,500-year-old archaeological site in Altÿnkazgan, Kazakhstan, has been investigated by Andrey Astafiev of Mangistaus State Historical and Cultural Reserve, and Evgenii Bogdanov of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The site is a complex of stone structures located near the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, and is thought to have been built by the nomadic Huns as they moved across Asia and Europe, around the time of the collapse of the Roman Empire. Made with stone slabs carved with images of weapons and animals, the smallest structures measure about 13 feet by 13 feet, while the largest measure some 112 feet by 79 feet. Within one of the structures, the team uncovered silver decorations thought to have adorned a saddle belonging to a wealthy person. The surface of the silver was decorated with images of boars, deer, and beasts that may be lions, and tamgas, or signs that may have been symbols of power. The saddle may have been placed in the stone structure for ritual purposes or as a burial offering. The team members also found two bronze parts of a whip in the same structure. For more, go to “First Domesticated Horses: Botai, Kazakhstan.”
RIPON, ENGLAND—The Herald Scotland reports that a team of researchers from the National Trust, the University of Bradford, Geoscan Research, and Mala Geoscience used ground-penetrating radar to find more than 500 graves, holding as many as 2,000 bodies, in rows curving out from the east of the church at Fountains Abbey. The monastery, located in North Yorkshire, was built in the early twelfth century, and closed in 1539 under Henry VIII. During the Victorian era, workmen uncovered some of these graves, and reported that they found several tiers in each. The new study agrees that the monks were buried in “bunk beds,” or graves separated by stone partitions, perhaps in order to protect them from damage during later burials. The monks may have believed that it was important to preserve their physical remains for resurrection on the Christian Day of Judgment. For more, go to “Legends of Glastonbury Abbey.”
LUXOR, EGYPT—The Guardian reports that a mummy has been discovered in a tomb near Luxor by a team of Spanish archaeologists led by Myriam Seco Alvarez. According to Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities, the tomb is thought to date to between 1075 and 664 B.C. The mummy, wrapped in linen and plaster, is thought to be the remains of Amenrenef, a nobleman and servant in the royal household. The mummy had been placed in a wooden sarcophagus decorated with images of the goddesses Isis and Nephtys, as well as the four sons of Horus. For more, go to “Egypt’s Immigrant Elite.”
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON—USA Today reports that Joshua Akey of the University of Washington and colleagues examined the DNA of 1,500 Europeans, East Asians, South Asians, and Melanesians to look for pieces of the genetic code inherited from Neanderthals and Denisovans. The team found that each group has 10 to 20 beneficial pieces of DNA from extinct human relatives. For example, the study suggests that genes from Neanderthals affect skin color and the immune system’s response to viruses and other microbes. Denisovan DNA is thought to help modern Tibetans live at high altitudes. Akey explained that borrowing DNA was “a way of short-circuiting the normal evolutionary process” for modern humans entering new environments. For more, go to “Decoding Neanderthal Genetics.”
KOKORYA, RUSSIA—The Siberian Times reports that two local people found a wooden coffin, along with a birch bark quiver, complete with pockets for different kinds of arrows, as well as arrow shafts and iron arrow heads. They claim to have found the artifacts in a hole in a cliff. Archaeologists have not opened the coffin, which they believe dates to sometime between the thirteenth and fifteenth centuries, but the two residents say it held bones and a bow. The residents also retrieved two decorative bone plaques, the remains of silk ribbons, a leather strap, and birch bark linings for a saddle. “The leather strap was used for attaching the quiver to the belt, we believe,” said Nikita Konstantinov, head of the Museum of Gorno-Altaisk State University. “Judging by the shape of the arrow heads, I would say that the owner was a warrior.” He added that this type of quiver has not been found before in the Altai Mountains, and may have come from Mongolia. “When the Mongolian tribes came to Altai, previous Turk traditions were forgotten,” added researcher Alexey Tishkin. “Part of the local population was assimilated or destroyed.” The team of archaeologists is making plans to investigate the burial site. For more, go to “Letter from Siberia: Fortress of Solitude.”
TASMANIA, AUSTRALIA—Live Science reports that researchers led by David Thurrowgood of the Queen Victoria Museum brewed beer with yeast recovered from bottles found in an eighteenth-century shipwreck using a traditional English recipe. The bottled beer, along with bottles of wine, brandy, gin, and casks of cheaper beer, came from the Sydney Cove, a British trading ship that wrecked near the island of Tasmania in 1797 while traveling from Calcutta to the prison colony at Port Jackson, now known as the city of Sydney. Some of the survivors eventually tried to complete the trip to the prison colony, but only three of the 17 ever made it. “They were the first Europeans to do that trek, so in terms of early colonial history, it was an enormous trip and tale of survival—I don’t know how they did it,” Thurrowgood said. The mild, sweet-tasting beverage may be similar to a celebrated eighteenth-century English beer. Thurrowgood thinks the original may have been exported from England for military officers stationed at Port Jackson. He added that the live yeast and the several species of bacteria found in the beer bottles could provide scientists with more information about the microorganisms in pre-industrial diets. To read about an ancient Chinese beer recipe, go to “World Roundup.”
TASILIKULOOQ, GREENLAND—Science Magazine reports that the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization has analyzed data on the settlement patterns, diet, and landscape of the Norse living in Greenland from the eleventh century to the mid-fifteenth century, when they disappeared. It had been thought that the Norse were primarily farmers whose crops and livestock failed to support them when the Little Ice Age set in, but new evidence suggests that the Norse spread to Iceland and Greenland in the pursuit of walrus ivory, which was highly valued in medieval Europe. Analysis of human remains from Norse cemeteries indicates that the settlers relied more heavily on marine animals for food as temperatures fell and it became harder to farm, even though pollen and soil data show that the settlers were more skilled in farming techniques such as irrigation, fertilizing, and allowing fields to rest than had been previously thought. Climate change and stormy seas would have made hunting and the ivory trade more difficult, too. “We used to think of Norse as farmers who hunted,” explained Thomas McGovern of Hunter College. “Now, we consider them hunters who farmed.” For more, go to “Vikings, Worms, and Emphysema.”
LONDON, ENGLAND—The Guardian reports that an excavation at the Curtain Theater by researchers from the Museum of London Archaeology has uncovered a rectangular stage some 45 feet long that was built over a passageway with doors at either end. It had been thought that the early Elizabethan theater had a polygonal structure, but the excavation has revealed that the building was rectangular in shape, and that it had timber galleries and a courtyard of compacted gravel built for theater goers. “The question is now whether Shakespeare and other playwrights were writing plays specifically for this kind of stage—which would have required a completely different style of interaction compared to a thrust stage with the audience on three sides,” said senior archaeologist Heather Knight. The excavation also revealed that the theater was purpose-built behind a structure that faced Curtain Road. Fragments of green-glazed money boxes that held entrance fees have been found. These boxes were smashed in a “box office,” where the money was counted. Glass beads and pins that may have come from the actors’ costumes were recovered, along with drinking vessels and clay pipes. For more, go to “Richard III’s Last Act.”
DAVIS, CALIFORNIA—Live Science reports that evolutionary biologist Ivan Juric of the University of California, Davis, and his colleagues want to know why modern humans carry so few Neanderthal genes. A large population of modern humans and a small Neanderthal population are thought to have interbred thousands of years ago, but very little Neanderthal DNA has survived in the modern human genome. It had been suggested that many of the offspring of Neanderthals and modern humans failed to thrive, or were infertile. Juric’s team developed a computer model to simulate the effects of natural selection on the distance between segments of Neanderthal DNA and modern human genes, since less Neanderthal DNA has been found in regions close to modern human genes than in the inactive areas between genes. The results of the simulation suggests that Neanderthal gene variants are being slowly removed by natural selection. Now Juric wants to know which gene variants contributed by extinct human relatives have been deleted from the modern human genome. “Once we know more about the genes involved, we can ask what those genes do and what traits they are involved with in modern humans,” he said. “Then, we might be able to make some guesses about the traits of those early human-Neanderthal hybrids.” For more, go to “Decoding Neanderthal Genetics.”
MILAN, ITALY—Seeker reports that the remains of a shackled man have been found in a 2,500-year-old Etruscan necropolis made up of otherwise “normal” burials in central Tuscany. The necropolis was located near the seaside settlement of Populonia, noted for iron processing in antiquity. The man, who was between 20 and 30 years old at the time of death, may have been a slave who worked in maritime activities, or in the local iron mines. He was bound with irons on his legs, and he wore a heavy iron collar around his neck. “We found a black spot under the nape, most likely what remained of a wood object which was likely connected to the iron collar,” said Giorgio Baratti of the University of Milan. He thinks the man’s neck and leg shackles were connected with ropes or leather straps. An iron ring found on one of his left fingers may also have been connected to the shackles. Analysis of the bones could reveal more information about the man, including where he had been born. To read in-depth about an Etruscan site, go to “The Tomb of the Silver Hands.”
UPPSALA, SWEDEN—Science Magazine reports that paleogeneticist Morgane Ollivier of the Ecole Normale Supéieure de Lyon, evolutionary geneticist Erik Axelsson of Uppsala University, and their colleagues examined DNA extracted from the bones and teeth of wolves and dogs whose remains were unearthed at Neolithic-era archaeological sites in Eurasia. Dogs are thought to have been domesticated by hunter-gatherers more than 15,000 years ago. The researchers found that as early as 7,000 years ago, at a time when humans were beginning to farm wheat and millet, the dogs had four to 30 copies of a gene involved in the digestion of starch, while wolves usually have just two. “This [expansion] probably constituted an important advantage for dogs feeding on human leftovers,” Ollivier said. He added that the number of copies of the starch gene carried by humans also increased at this time. To read in-depth about dogs and archaeology, go to “More Than Man's Best Friend.”
COPENHAGEN, DENMARK—The International Business Times reports that scientists from the University of Copenhagen tested sediments at archaeological sites in Greenland dating back 4,000 years for DNA clues to what the island's first inhabitants ate. The study suggests that bowhead whales and other large mammals made up much of the diet of the Saqqaq culture. But whale bones have not been found at Saqqaq archaeological sites, probably because pieces of meat and blubber, rather than the entire carcass of the animal, were transported from the shore to the settlement. It had been previously thought that the people of the Thule culture were the first to hunt and eat whales between 600 and 800 years ago. For more on on archaeology in the area, go to “Letter from Norway: The Big Melt.”
ZEALAND, DENMARK—Science Nordic reports that a 1,000-year-old toolbox containing 14 iron tools was discovered at Borgring, a Viking ring fortress, by metal detectorists. “The toolbox is the first direct indication of life that we’ve found around the fortress,” said archaeologist Nanna Holm. The tools are thought to have been kept in a wooden box near the east gate of the fortress, which was damaged by fire. “It looks like the fire was brought under control before it spread, and afterwards they laid two layers of clay inside the gate,” Holm explained. “In each layer we find a fireplace, and we found the toolbox in the youngest layer.” The evidence also suggests that the gate eventually collapsed, burying the toolbox. Such valuable iron was usually melted down and reused, making the tools, including spoon drills, a drawplate for making thin wire, a piece of chain, and a clink nail, a rare discovery. For more, go to “The First Vikings.”
ASWAN, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that a causeway leading to the three-room tomb of Sarenput I has been found at the Qubbet El-Hawa necropolis by a team of archaeologists from the University of Birmingham and the Egypt Exploration Society. Sarenput I was the provincial governor of Aswan’s Elephantine Island during the Middle Kingdom, in addition to holding other posts in service to King Senusert I of the 12th Dynasty. The causeway, which measures more than 400 feet long, is decorated with engravings. One of the images depicts a group of men pulling a bull and presenting it as an offering to the deceased governor. A pit in the causeway has yielded containers that may have been used as canopic jars. According to Hani Abul Azm, head of the central administration of Upper Egypt, their contents will be studied. To read in-depth about recent excavations in Egypt, go to "The Cult of Amun."
ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND—A team led by Mark P. Leone of the University of Maryland says that a set of circular-shaped objects unearthed at the site of a former Maryland plantation may have held religious significance to African Americans, according to a report in The New York Times. One of the objects, which were found in a house, may reflect a cosmogram, or a circle with an X inside of it that was a traditional religious symbols from the BaKongo belief system of West Central Africa. Christian preachers are thought to have repurposed the cosmogram as Ezekiel’s blazing chariot wheel, described in the Old Testament as a wheel inside a wheel, in their efforts to convert enslaved people who originated from West Central Africa. The team members say that this is the first time that these circle images have been found together. “Christianity had not erased traditional African spirit practices,” Leone said. “It had merged with them to form a potent blend that still thrives today.” To read in-depth about archaeology at another Maryland plantation, go to "Letter From Maryland: Belvoir's Legacy."
ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA—The Hindu reports that a rock art site thought to date to the tenth century A.D. has been found near the southeastern coast of India by a team led by Sivakumar Challa of Yogi Vemana University. The researchers had been investigating a megalithic site in the area when they found the artwork. The drawings had been made with white pigment, and depict a woman warrior wearing head gear and shoes, and holding a lance with both hands. She is carrying two daggers, on each side of her waist. A horse stands near her. Other images include circle and floral designs, a parrot, and an elephant. To read more about archaeology in southern India, go to "India's Village of the Dead."
ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND—The Telegraph reports that research by Mark Collard of the University of Aberdeen and Simon Fraser University, Ben Raffield of Simon Fraser University, and Neil Price of Uppsala University supports the idea that young Viking men may have been driven to raid other lands in the pursuit of wives, rather than as part of a battle against the spread of Christianity. They say that social inequality and the rise of polygamy in the Iron Age world meant that there were few women available as potential partners for young, poor men. They explain that by raiding, young men would have been able to accumulate wealth and power quickly, and thus improve their chances of gaining wives. The researchers cite recent research that suggests that Yanomamo tribes in South America practice intervillage raiding in pursuit of wives for polygamous marriages. They also say that the graves of members of Viking raiding parties belonged to young men rather than seasoned veterans. For more, go to “The Vikings in Ireland.”
ARKHANGELSK, RUSSIA—Live Science reports that a team led by Evgeny Ermolov of the Russian Arctic National Park investigated a World War II–era weather station, complete with a bunkhouse, emergency supply depot, and an emergency aircraft landing strip built by the German military on an island in the Barents Sea. The island is usually trapped by snow and ice for much of the year, but this August, the land was clear and the team was able to investigate the site. The last of the German meteorology team members who worked at the station were evacuated by U-boat in 1944, but others had to be airlifted off the island earlier that year after getting ill from eating improperly cooked polar bear meat. “It was quite disastrous—the expedition leader went crazy, and when they were flown out he had to be strapped down to the floor of the aircraft, so he wouldn’t run riot,” commented polar historian William Barr. Ermolov and his team recovered more than 600 artifacts, including army and naval uniforms, fragments of weapons and ammunition, fuel barrels, tents, batteries, crates, smoke bombs, signal flares, books, documents, manuals, and meteorology textbooks. After the war, the Soviet military used the base into the 1950s. To read about another discovery in the Arctic, go to “Franklin’s Last Voyage.”
NIKUMARORO, REPUBLIC OF KIRIBATI—CNN reports that human remains discovered on the island of Nikumaroro in 1940 may have belonged to aviator Amelia Earhart, who disappeared in 1937. The skeleton, which British authorities had identified as male, was eventually lost, but researchers with the International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) obtained the original files of the examination, which include measurements of the bones. Forensic anthropologists determined that the measurements are consistent with a woman of Earhart’s height and ethnic origin. Recently, while reviewing those measurements, Richard Jantz of the University of Tennessee noticed that the skeleton in question had unusually long forearms. He joined forces with Jeff Glickman, a forensic imaging specialist, to analyze photographs of Earhart. They concluded that her forearms are nearly identical to those of the recovered skeleton. The TIGHAR team suggests that Earhart’s navigator, Frederick J. Noonan, died shortly after the plane crashed, and that his body was washed away by the island’s tides, since Earhart reported him injured in her initial distress calls, and only one set of human remains was recovered. “We believe she survived heroically, and alone, for a period of time, in terrible circumstances,” said Ric Gillespie, TIGHAR executive director. For more, go to “Last Flight of a Tuskegee Airman.”