VINDOLANDA, ENGLAND—Archaeologists at the site of Vindolanda in northern England have unearthed another piece of evidence of the daily life of the Roman soldiers and their families who lived on Hadrian’s Wall two millennia ago. The Vindolanda Charitable Trust reports that a volunteer has uncovered a tile with the partial imprint of an adolescent’s right foot made, either accidentally or purposely, when they clay was drying. Although excavators have found other footprints belonging to dogs and cats at the site, as well as more than 6,000 shoes, this is the first human footprint to have been found. “This footprint highlights even more that archaeology has the potential to illuminate the lives of otherwise voiceless individuals from antiquity,” says Field School Director archaeologist Elizabeth Greene. To read about how the soldiers at Vindolanda spent their free time, go to "Artifact."
CARDIFF, WALES— Archaeologists have begun excavating at Caerau Hillfort, a large Iron Age site just outside the Welsh capital. Last year, the team made a number of significant discoveries, including five Iron Age roundhouses and Neolithic flint weapons that date to about 3600 B.C., making the site significantly older than previously believed. "Last year some mind-blowing discoveries were made which pushed back the origins of Cardiff deep into time," project co-director Dave Wyatt told Culture24. "But we believe we're still just scratching the surface of this incredible site, so who knows what will be uncovered this year.” To read in-depth about another site that reveals thousands of years of British history, go to "Letter From England."
KOITAS, KAZAKHSTAN—LiveScience reports that researchers studying the remains of a seventh-century B.C. nomad unearthed from a Scythian burial mound in central Kazkahstan have discovered an arrowhead embedded in the man's spine. The bronze point is a little over two inches long, but it appears the man did not die immediately after being wounded. "The found individual was extremely lucky to survive," said Queen's University Belfast bioarchaeologist Svetlana Svyatko. "It's hard to get a vertebral wound without damaging the main blood vessels, which would have resulted in an immediate death." The mound in which the remains were found had been plundered before the archaeologists excavated it, but at almost 75 feet in diameter, its impressive dimensions suggest the man belonged to Scythian nobility. To read about the ancestors of the Scythians, go to "Wolf Rites of Winter."
AGANA, GUAM—A team led by University of Guam archaeologist Mike Carson has discovered a prehistoric village near the island's Ritidian Point, reports Pacific Daily News. The settlement was made up of 15 limestone and coral homes, some of which still have stone patios attached to them. The team has found fishing hooks and other artifacts amid the ruins of the houses and is planning a limited excavation at the site. According to Carson, the village probably dates back to the 17th-century, and is mentioned in historical documents as a place where islanders rose up against Spanish rule around 1680. To read more about archaeology in the Pacific, go to "Letter From the Marshall Islands."
LONDON, ENGLAND—The British Museum and the Trust for African Rock Art are partnering to make some 25,000 images of rock art available to the public. The database will contain images of remote and difficult to access sites that are rarely visited and are subject to deterioration. "The Museum wants to make Africa’s rock art available to both scholars and the general public alike," Elizabeth Galvin, curator of the African Rock Art Image Project, told the Independent. "We hope to both protect and share this remarkable history for free with a global audience." The archive will include images from sites raining from Libya to South Africa, and will include art dating from 10,000 B.C. to the early twentieth century. To read in-depth about archaeology in Africa, go to "The Nok of Nigeria."
CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA—World War I-era trenches have been unearthed outside of the Australian capital of Canberra. Dug in 1916 by officers hoping to simulate battlefield conditions in Europe, the trenches were recorded in military documents, but their exact location was unknown until Australian National University archaeologists used remote sensing to search for them. The team is now unearthing an elaborate system of trenches and tunnels that was used to train soldiers in new tactics before they were shipped to the front. "It's a sobering thought ... when people were here they were probably optimistic about the new trench designs and how they'd go in the field," archaeologist Tim Denham told ABC. "And of course now we know what a terrible time it was for all those who went and unfortunately a lot of people didn't come back." To read in-depth about WW I-era battlefield archaeology, go to "Anzac's Next Chapter."
NORWICH, ENGLAND—Archaeologists excavating ahead of a new development in Norwich are revealing the remains of a 13th-century Augustinian friary that was dissolved by Henry VIII in 1538. The wealth of artifacts and remains discovered at the site, known as Austin Priory, is expected to give researchers a new perspective on a period when several monastic orders established themselves in the city. “Before the friary, this was marshland. They didn’t have a lot of choice but to set up outside what was the Saxon town and were given the land by rich benefactors in return for praying for their soul," Ramboll Group archaeologist Andy Shelly told Eastern Daily Press. “They started off as a reaction to what was seen as the wealth of the church—living in poverty and chastity and taking the message to the people of Norwich, but they soon ended up becoming wealthy themselves.” In addition to oyster shells and animal bones, the archaeologists have discovered several burials that could give the team insight into diet and health of the monks living at the friary. To read about another recent discovery in Norwich, go to "Medieval Leather, Vellum, and Fur."
KIBBUTZ MAGEN, ISRAEL—A marble statuette of a dolphin gripping a fish in its jaws has been unearthed in the northern Negev at the ruins of a late Byzantine and early Islamic site. The statue itself probably dates to the Roman era, but was re-used later as building material for a paved floor. Standing 16 inches high, it was originally part of a larger statue, perhaps one depicting a god. “It’s possible that the [full] statue was of the [Greek] goddess of love and beauty, Aphrodite, who was born from sea foam,” Israel Antiquities Authority archaeologist Rina Avner told the Times of Israel. There was a major shrine to the goddess in the nearby city of Ashekelon. Avner also speculates that the larger statue might have been of Poseidon, who was often depicted with dolphins. To read about the discovery of another sculpture dating to the same era, go to "Artifact: Roman Eagle Sculpture."
PETERBOROUGH, ENGLAND—Archaeologists are returning to excavate at Must Farm, a 3,000-year-old Bronze Age site protected by a ring of wooden posts that was destroyed by fire. “We think those living in the settlement were forced to leave everything behind when it caught on fire,” Cambridgeshire County Council archaeologist Kasia Gdaniec told Culture24. Among the previous discoveries at the site were a charred pot filled with food and a partially charred spoon, as well as glass beads and nine log boats. “We anticipate that more of the timber structure, a range of organic remains and fishing equipment and the whole gamut of personal, work and settlement paraphernalia will be found," said Gdaniec. To read about another Bronze Age site, go to "Wolf Rites of Winter."
WOOD'S HOLE, MASSACHUSSETS—Excavation of the Antikythera shipwreck will continue for another five years, reports LiveScience. First discovered by sponge divers off the coast of a small Greek island more than a century ago, the ship dates to the first century B.C. and is most famous for carrying the bronze Antikythera mechanism, the ancient world's most sophisticated astrological instrument. The project, a collaboration between the Greek government and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, has so far resulted in a 3-D map of the seafloor around the wreck as well as the discovery of a number of artifacts, including a lead anchor and an oversize bronze spear that may have belonged to a statue. The team also discovered the site actually consists of two separate remains separated by more than 300 feet, indicating the ship either broke in half when it sank or that two distinct shipwrecks rest on the seafloor. To read about a modern recreation of the astrological device discovered at the site, go to "Artifact: Antikythera Mechanism."
PASSO MARINARO, SICILY—Research conducted by archaeologist Carrie Sulosky Weaver of the University of Pittsburgh has shown that the zombie craze is not a new phenomenon, but one with evidence going back more than 2,000 years. According to a report on her work in LiveScience, Sulosky Weaver studied two burials from a necropolis in a Greek settlement on the island of Sicily that she considered “peculiar” because they hold what she believes to be the remains of “revenants,” a zombie-like figure. The ancient Greeks believed that certain dead bodies could reanimate, and that to keep them in their graves, they had to be ritually killed or trapped inside in some way, such as pinning the body down with amphora fragments or large stones, as was done at Passo Marinaro. To read more about another type of ancient undead, go to "Plague Vampire Exorcism."
DUNDEE, SCOTLAND—Forensic experts at the University of Dundee have reconstructed the face of a Saxon man whose skeleton was unearthed at a previously unknown church discovered on the grounds of Lincoln Castle, which was built by William the Conqueror. Radiocarbon dating of the remains showed the man died sometime between A.D. 1035 and 1070, or just before the Norman Conquest. His skeleton, which showed a range of significant degenerative bone diseases suggestive of a strenuous life, was one of eight discovered at the site, and was unusually well preserved. “His grave lay slightly under an important sarcophagus burial, which had resulted in excellent preservation of his skull [that made] it the best candidate among the skeletons for facial reconstruction,” said forensic artist Caroline Erolin in a University of Dundee press release. Osteological examination of the remains shows the man was between 36 and 45 years old when he died, and isotope analysis of his bones and teeth indicate that he was born and bred in eastern England. To read about the excavation of an early Anglo-Saxon site, go to "The Kings of Kent."
CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND—Polish police arrested two British teenagers on a school trip to Auschwitz for picking up artifacts from the ground. The 17-year-old boys were spotted in an area where the prisoners’ personal items had been stockpiled in the Nazi-run death camp, where an estimated 1.5 million people, mostly European Jews, were killed during World War II. The police found the boys with a fragment of a razor, part of a spoon, a hair clipper, buttons, and pieces of glass. The Mirror reports that the school said the teens had “picked up the items without thinking.” The boys were fined and given a year’s probation, suspended for three years.
KAMENOVO, BULGARIA—Archaeologists from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, the Razgrad Regional Museum of History, and the Ruse Regional Museum of History unearthed a workshop for making flint tools some 4,500 years ago while looking for a necropolis at the Chalcolithic site near Kamenovo in northeast Bulgaria. Archaeology in Bulgaria reports that pieces of flint, in addition to unfinished and completed tools, were found, along with fragments of pottery, in a layer of black sediment on clay-coated ground. This huge workshop is thought to have produced high-status tools found in other archaeological sites in Bulgaria. To read about a spectacular discovery from a later period in Bulgaria, go to "Thracian Treasure Chest."
ZUG, SWITZERLAND—The Local reports that coins, knives, a knife scabbard, arrows, and a spur that may have been left behind during the Battle of Morgarten have been found in the Agëri Valley of central Switzerland. The victory of the Swiss Confederacy over Austrian troops at the Battle of Morgarten in 1315 paved the way for Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire. The 12 silver coins date from 1275 to the beginning of the fourteenth century. These are the first archaeological artifacts to be found that may have come from the battle. “The objects are so exciting my heart beats faster,” said Stefan Hochuli, Zug cantonal archaeologist. To read in-depth about medieval-era archaeology in Africa, go to "Stone Towns of the Swahili Coast."
SARDINIA, ITALY—A ship that sank some 2,000 years ago while carrying a cargo of terracotta roof tiles has been discovered in deep water off the coast of Sardinia by a specialized diving unit of the Italian police. The tiles, which are still packed into ship’s hold, had probably been made in Rome and were headed to a villa for a senior Roman official or a wealthy merchant. “Given the location of the discovery, archaeologists believe that the vessel was destined for Spain or the west coast of Sardinia,” reads an official statement from the Polizia di Stato, reported in The Telegraph. The weight of the tiles may have contributed to the sinking of the vessel. “The cargo is very well preserved and has enormous value to scholars. We’re really pleased about this discovery,” commented Rubens D’Oriano of Sardinia’s archaeological department. To read about more underwater discoveries, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks."
KROSNO, POLAND—A farmer in southeastern Poland unearthed three gold bracelets tied with golden wire that are thought to date to between 1600 and 400 B.C. “We will study the place of discovery because we want to determine whether it was a discovery of a treasure, or perhaps remains of a burial ground,” Jan Gancarski, director of the Subcarpathian Museum in Krosno, told Science & Scholarship in Poland. Gancarski thinks that “the objects probably originated from behind the Carpathians. At the time, the Carpathian foothills were inhabited by people who came here from behind the Carpathians.”
VICTORIA, CANADA—Fossilized footprints discovered below the current shoreline of an island in British Columbia may be the oldest in North America. The prints, thought to have been made by a man, a woman, and a child some 13,000 years ago, were discovered on Calvert Island last year near the remains of an ancient campfire. “We figure that at some point people were hanging out around this fire. They left their footprints in the grey clay and then they were subsequently filled by this black sand, which essentially preserved the footprints,” archaeologist Duncan McLaren of the University of Victoria told the National Post. For more on archaeology in British Columbia, go to "The Edible Seascape."
NEW YORK, NEW YORK—New radiocarbon dates for Mesoamerican parrots unearthed in the late nineteenth century in the American Southwest suggest that the birds were highly prized by the pueblo’s political elites in the early tenth century, at least 150 years earlier than previously thought. Most of the skeletal remains of scarlet macaws found in Chaco Canyon’s Pueblo Bonito predate the Chaco florescence, an era of rapid architectural expansion beginning around A.D. 1040. “By directly dating the macaws, we have demonstrated the existence of long-distance networks throughout much of this settlement’s history. Our findings suggest that rather than the acquisition of macaws being a side effect of the rise of Chacoan society, there was a causal relationship. The ability to access these trade networks and the ritual power associated with macaws and their feathers may have been important to forming these hierarchies in the first place,” Adam Watson off the American Museum of Natural History said in a press release.
LUND, SWEDEN—The well-preserved mummy of Peder Winstrup, a bishop who had been buried in a crypt at Lund Cathedral a year after his death in 1679, has been examined by scientists from Lund University. CT scans show that the 74-year-old Winstrup suffered from fluid in his sinuses and had been bedridden for a long time, and he may have had both tuberculosis and pneumonia. He also had plaque in his arteries, gallstones, osteoarthritis in the knees and hips, dental cavities, and had lost teeth. “His right shoulder was slightly higher than his left, due to an injury to a tendon in the shoulder. This would have limited Winstrup’s mobility, making it difficult for him to carry out simple everyday tasks such as putting on a shirt or combing his hair with the comb in his right hand,” osteologist Caroline Ahlström Arcini said in a press release. The scan also revealed the remains of a fetus that had been concealed under Winstrup’s feet. “You can only speculate as to whether it was one of Winstrup’s next of kin, or whether someone else took the opportunity while preparing the coffin. But we hope to be able to clarify any kinship through a DNA test,” said Per Karsten, director of the Historical Museum at Lund University. To read about a recent discovery made in Sweden, go to "One Ring to Bind Them."