GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA—Nature reports that archaeologist Randee Fladeboe of the University of Florida analyzed remains of 17 scarlet and military macaws unearthed at three prehistoric pueblos in New Mexico. It had been thought that most of the parrot bones and feathers uncovered across the American Southwest came from tropical birds imported from rainforests in Central and South America. But new research suggests that the birds were farmed in the Southwest for their feathers. At Pueblo Bonito in Chaco Canyon, archaeologists have found what may be a 1,000-year-old aviary, complete with a 10-inch-thick layer of droppings. And Fadeboe found small bumps on the upper surfaces of the wing bones of 15 of the birds in the study. Pulling out flight feathers, which are rooted in the bone, could have caused bleeding and infection that, over time, would have left multiple marks. She also noted that one macaw had recovered from two broken wings and had signs of malnutrition and illness, as well as marks on its beak from attacks from other macaws. Its survival would have required special care and feeding by human keepers. “People were doing their utmost to keep them alive,” Fladeboe said. For more, go to “Early Parrots in the Southwest.”
KENT, OHIO—The International Business Times reports that researchers from Kent State University, Southern Methodist University, the University of Tulsa, Rogers State University, and Texas A&M University employed computer models and made test specimens in order to evaluate Clovis weapons technologies. They tested re-created points with and without “fluting,” a flint knapping technique thought to have been developed by Clovis hunters, where a thin groove is chipped from the base and both sides of a stone point. The process can make a point more brittle, and as many as 20 percent of the points may break, but the researchers found that fluting can also make the point better able to absorb the shock of hitting a hard object, such as the rib of a large game animal. The team members argue that fluting points was worth the time and effort because Clovis hunters would have been able to retrieve and reuse their engineered points while exploring new territory. To read more about Clovis points, go to “Destination: The Americas.”
DETVA, SLOVAKIA—The Slovak Spectator reports that traces of a 3,000-year-old dwelling and vessels for food preparation have been found in central Slovakia. The building, which measured 28 feet long by 16 feet wide, is the first from the Bronze Age to be identified in the area. Archaeologists think the Bronze Age residents may have produced food for the fortified settlement of Kalamárka, located about three miles away. To read more about the Bronze Age, go to “Wolf Rites of Winter.”
NORTH YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND—According to Live Science, Historic England announced that efforts to improve the A1, a road that stretches from London to Edinburgh, have uncovered evidence of wealthy Roman settlements and sections of Dere Street, an ancient Roman roadway that followed the same route as the A1. At Scotch Corner, a well-known junction where the paths to eastern and western Scotland diverge, an excavation team from Northern Archaeological Associates discovered a settlement dating to A.D. 60. It had been thought that York and Carlisle, which date to A.D. 70, were the oldest Roman settlements in northern England. A figure of a toga-clad actor carved from amber, and more than 1,400 fragments of clay molds for making gold, silver, and copper coins, were unearthed at Scotch Corner. In addition to being the most northerly example of coin production in Europe, the molds suggest that the site was an industrial and administrative center for several decades, until it was eclipsed by the rise of Cataractonium, a leatherworking center, to the south. There, archaeologists recovered a silver snake-shaped ring, keys of various sizes, pens, a pewter ink pot, and a lead plumb bob—a tool used for building straight roads. For more on life in Roman England, go to “London’s Earliest Writing.”
QUÉBEC, CANADA—According to a report in The International Business Times, San rock art in southern Africa has been directly dated with a technique known as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating. This method uses a much smaller sample than traditional radiocarbon dating, and thus causes less damage to the artwork. Adelphine Bonneau of Laval University explained that the study tested rock art at 14 sites located in southeastern Botswana, western Lesotho, and South Africa’s Eastern Cape Province. The team members were careful to avoid paintings made with charcoal, which could have been much older than the image itself, and to remove radiocarbon contaminants from the samples. The oldest of the paintings in the study came from Botswana and was dated to between 5,723 and 4,420 years ago. “These dates are only the beginning of these investigations, but they open up the possibility of initiating a dialogue between the art of the San and their archaeological remains,” Bonneau said. “Since the rock art reflected their spiritual world, we may get new insights on their society and the cultural and spiritual connections they shared with other tribes.” To read more about rock art, go to “The First Artists.”
ROME, ITALY—The Local, Italy, reports that a 100-foot-long section of 2,300-year-old aqueduct was discovered in Rome’s historic city center during the excavation of a ventilation shaft for the new C metro line. Archaeologist Simona Morretta said that its large stone blocks, found more than 55 feet underground—a depth that archaeologists are not normally able to access safely—may have been part of the Aqua Appia, which dates to 312 B.C and is Rome's oldest known aqueduct. By the first century B.C., however, the structure may have been used as a sewer. Excavators also recovered the remains of a wide range of animals, including wild boars, swans, pheasants, and saltwater fish. Archaeologists are dismantling the structure, but it will be rebuilt at another location. To read more on Rome's aqueducts, go to “How Much Water Reached Rome?”
BRIGHTON, ENGLAND—The Guardian reports that James Cole of the University of Brighton assessed the nutritional value of the human body and found that an adult male weighing about 145 pounds would have provided about 144,000 calories, with 32,000 of those calories from skeletal muscle. That number is low when compared with the caloric values of other animals whose butchered remains are found at Paleolithic archaeological sites, such as 3,600,000 calories in the skeletal muscle of a mammoth, or 200,100 calories from a horse’s muscles. Cole thinks it would have been easier to obtain food from the saiga antelope, whose muscles contained around the same number of calories as those of humans, or small animals such as birds and hares, than from a hard-to-catch hominin. “Maybe there is more of a social driver here, not ritual specifically, but social,” he said. For more, go to “Colonial Cannibalism.”
CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND—According to a report in The Press, artifacts and features dating to the early nineteenth century have been uncovered at a construction site on New Zealand’s South Island by an excavation team from Underground Overground Archaeology. The artifacts, which are thought to have belonged to the island’s first European residents, include a jar labeled “Russian Bears Grease” (a hair care product that was probably goose fat), a child’s knife with a bone handle inscribed with the words “for a good boy,” and a glass jar from a London pharmacist. All of these objects appear to date to the 1840s. A decorated mason jug, probably made in the 1820s, may have been brought to the island from England as a family heirloom. The team has also found a well, walls, and a rubbish pit. Archaeologist Hamish Williams said the team is researching historic records to find out what sort of building once stood on the site. To read about a recent discovery in Australia, go to “Death by Boomerang.”
CHAMPAIGN, ILLINOIS—According to a report in Science Magazine, a study of nuclear DNA suggests that Native American and First Nations groups living in southern Alaska and the western coast of British Columbia are descendants of people who lived in the region some 10,000 years ago. An earlier study of mitochondrial DNA, which is passed along the maternal line, failed to find a link between the 10,300-year-old skeleton known as Shuká Káa, or “Man Ahead of Us,” and members of the Tlingit tribe that now live near On Your Knees Cave, where the remains were discovered. The new tests also sampled nuclear DNA from a 6,000-year-old skeleton found on Lucy Island in British Columbia, and two skeletons from the Prince Rupert Harbor area—one 2,500 years old, the other 1,750 years old—and compared the DNA sequences to samples from 156 indigenous groups from around the world. They found that the younger skeletons were closely related to groups living in the Pacific Northwest today, while Shuká Káa appeared to be more closely related to groups living in South and Central America. But the results could indicate that the individuals all shared the same ancestors. Ripan Malhi of the University of Illinois in Champaign said the data also indicates there were multiple genetic lineages in the Americas at least 10,300 years ago. To read in-depth about early settlement of the Americas, go to “America, in the Beginning.”
SOFIA, BULGARIA—The Sofia Globe reports that six family tombs and 20 pit burials in the eastern necropolis of the ancient city of Serdica have been uncovered by a construction project. The tombs are thought to date to the fourth through sixth centuries A.D., and were heavily damaged during construction work in the twentieth century. However, human remains were recovered from the intact pit burials, which were found between the tombs. The bones from these burials will be radiocarbon dated. To read about another discovery in Bulgaria, go to “Thracian Treasure Chest.”
CAIRO, EGYPT—According to a report in Live Science, an inscription on an alabaster block in the inner structure of a 3,800-year-old pyramid found in the royal necropolis at Dahshur records the name of pharaoh Ameny Qemau. “He was the fifth king of Dynasty XIII and ruled for about two years, [around] 1790 B.C.,” said Egyptologist James Allen of Brown University, who was asked to comment on the discovery. Another pyramid bearing the name of Ameny Qemau was discovered at the site in 1957. Aidan Dodson of the University of Bristol added that the pharaoh may have chiseled out his predecessor’s name and added his own to the alabaster block found at the pyramid. For more on Egypt, go to “Mummification Before the Pharaohs.”
NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA—The International Business Times reports that researchers led by Susan Hayes of the University of Wollongong have reconstructed the face of a woman whose 13,600-year-old remains were found in the Tham Lod rock shelter in northwest Thailand. Standing just under five feet tall, the woman, who is thought to be descended from the first people to colonize Southeast Asia, was between the ages of 25 and 35 when she died. Hayes said that the team compared the measurements of the woman’s face to the average variation of measurements of skulls, muscles, skin, and other soft tissues from recent populations around the world, in order to try to keep the impression of her face from being biased toward one population. But Hayes acknowledges that no one’s face is average. “Facial reconstruction fascinates people, and it attracts a lot of enthusiasm from both artists and scientists,” Hayes said. “Unfortunately, some are scientists without any understandings of the technicalities of artistic depiction, others are artists without any understandings of the technicalities of science.” To read about a recent attempt at facial reconstruction, go to “Neolithic FaceTime.”
VIENNA, AUSTRIA—Wolfgang Neubauer, director of the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospection and Virtual Archaeology (LBI ArchPro), has employed aerial photography, ground-penetrating radar systems, and magnetometers to study the Roman city of Carnuntum, according to a report in Live Science. The city, located on the southern bank of the Danube River, was home to as many as 50,000 people in the second century A.D. The latest survey suggests there was a shop-lined boulevard leading to the city’s 13,000-seat amphitheater. Neubauer and his team compared what they found to similar buildings in other Roman cities, and concluded that the shops likely sold souvenirs and ready-to-eat food. “It gives us now a very clear story of a day at the amphitheater,” he said. For more, go to “Rome's Imperial Port.”
MISSOULA, MONTANA—According to a report in The Vancouver Sun, a research team led by Anna Marie Prentiss of the University of Montana has uncovered a pit house in British Columbia’s Fraser Canyon that shows signs of periodic occupation over a period of about 1,500 years, ending in the mid-nineteenth century with the arrival of European fur traders. Prentiss explained that, every 20 years or so, a new roof was put on the structure and a new layer of dirt was installed on the floor, creating 17 distinct layers in all. “We have exquisite detail, with all these floors,” she said. Among the artifacts, the team has recovered burned rocks, hide scrapers, stone points, and deer, dog, and fish bones. The house also changed size and shape over time. At its largest, the house may have met the needs of as many as 30 to 40 people living in the First Nations settlement. Venetian glass beads, an iron horseshoe, a ring, machine-made bone buttons, and three stone spindle whorls were found in the topmost layer. “The fur-trade material lets us see what life was like just before the onslaught of the Gold Rush,” Prentiss said. To read about another recent discovery in Canada, go to “Discovering Terror.”
SOUTH EAST QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA—Live Science reports that art and jewelry dated to between 26,000 and 22,000 years ago has been found in Indonesia’s Leang Bulu Bettue. The cave is located on the island of Sulawesi in Wallacea, an archipelago of some 2,000 islands, where the remains of Homo floresiensis were discovered in 2003, and rock art thought to be at least 40,000 years old was found in 2014. The jewelry includes beads made from tusks of babirusas, also known as “pig-deer,” and a pendant made from the finger bone of a marsupial known as a bear cuscus. The cave also yielded stone flakes incised with geometric patterns, pieces of ochre, and a long, pigment-covered, hollow bear-cuscus bone that may have been used as a tool for creating rock art. “The discovery is important because it challenges the long-standing view that hunter-gatherer communities in the Pleistocene tropics of Southeast Asia were less advanced than their counterparts in Upper Paleolithic Europe,” said archaeologist Adam Brumm of Griffith University. To read about early rock art found on Sulawesi, go to “The First Artists.”
IZMIT, TURKEY—The Daily Sabah reports that a construction crew unearthed three Roman-period sarcophagi in the region of ancient Nicomedia, the eastern capital of the Roman Empire in the third and fourth centuries A.D. Adnan Zamburkan, president of the Kocaeli Culture and Tourism Directorate, said two of the sarcophagi may belong to children. The third is thought to belong to an adult. “We will bring the sarcophagi to the museum after consultations with the cultural and natural heritage conservation board,” he said. To read more about archaeology in Turkey, go to “The Price of a Warship.”
WASHINGTON, D.C.—Dendrochronologists have determined that a 50-foot ship discovered along the colonial waterfront in Alexandria, Virginia, was constructed with wood from trees that had been chopped down sometime after 1741, according to a WTOP report. Benjamin Skolnik, a City of Alexandria archaeologist, said that the researchers were also able to determine that the trees had come from Boston. Eighteenth-century maps show the ship sunk in the river when the city expanded and filled in the waterway. “The early colonists banked out,” said Skolnik. “They cut down into the bluff that was along the river bank, filled into the river. Actually extended eastward into the Potomac River,” he explained. The excavation team also recovered the bulk head where the ship had been tied. The wood from the wharf dates to the winter of 1773-1774, which corresponds with historic records. To read more about nautical archaeology, go to "Shipwreck Alley."
SOUTHAMPTON, ENGLAND—According to a report in The Guardian, a team of researchers from Historic England and the University of Southampton studied a collection of human bones from at least ten individuals excavated from a medieval site in North Yorkshire more than 50 years ago. The remains were recovered from overlapping pits between houses in the village, and not near the church or in its graveyard. Scholars originally thought the burials were older than the medieval village. But the new research reveals that the broken bones, which belonged to adults, teenagers, and children, bear cut marks and evidence that some of the body parts had been burned. Isotopic analysis of the individuals’ teeth indicates that they had lived in the village where they had been buried, and so were not invaders. And, the cut marks are in unlikely places for butchery, such as the skulls and upper body. “The idea that the Wharram Percy bones are the remains of corpses burnt and dismembered to stop them walking from their graves seems to fit the evidence best,” said skeletal biologist Simon Mays of Historic England. “If we are right, then this is the first good archaeological evidence we have for this practice.” To read more about medieval archaeology in northern England, go to "Stronghold of the Kings in the North."
CAIRO, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that a portion of a 13th-Dynasty pyramid has been discovered in the Dahshur royal necropolis, to the north of King Senefru’s Bent Pyramid. Mahmoud Afifi of Egypt’s Antiquities Ministry said that the remaining structure includes a lintel, an inside corridor, a hall that leads to a ramp to the south, and a room at the western end. The Egyptian archaeological team also found a block of alabaster engraved with ten lines of hieroglyphs. Further investigation at the site will focus on determining who owned the pyramid. To read about a similar discovery, go to "Miniature Pyramids of Sudan."
ABERDEEN, SCOTLAND—The Scotsman reports that researchers at the University of Aberdeen used photogrammetry technology and a CAT scanner to create a digital 3-D model of an ancient Egyptian mummified cat from the “outside and in.” The mummy, one of perhaps 70 million animal mummies produced by the ancient Egyptians, was recovered from the temple at Bubastis, and is thought to be at least 2,000 years old. The CAT scan revealed that the full-sized, cat-shaped wrappings contained the remains of a tiny kitten. “It looks like the cat’s neck had been broken,” said Neil Curtis, head of the university’s museums, “so it’s quite a gruesome tale really, but it gives some insight into what daily culture and customs existed around these temples in Egypt at that time.” To read in-depth about Egyptian animal mummies, go to "Messengers of the Gods."