KYOTO, JAPAN—Baby Japanese macaques smile during their REM sleep, similar to human infants and baby chimpanzees, according to a study led by Fumito Kawakami of Kyoto University. Kawakami’s research team recorded how often seven napping macaques between four and 21 days old lifted one or both corners of their mouths when they fell asleep during their medical examinations. “Spontaneous macaque smiles are more like short, lopsided spasms compared to those of human infants,” Kawakami explained in a Daily Mail report. The presence of spontaneous smiles in macaques, a distant human relative, suggests that the origin of smiling dates back at least 30 million years, before the ancestors of modern humans and old world monkeys diverged. Kawakami thinks that the spontaneous smiles most likely do not express pleasure, but may help develop facial muscles used in later developmental stages for social smiling in humans and grimaces in other primates. For more, go to "Scientists Unearth Macaque 'Tools' in Thailand."
WINDSOR, CONNECTICUT—Brian Jones of the Office of the Connecticut State Archaeologist was looking for traces of a palisade that protected English colonists from Pequot attacks in the seventeenth century when he found signs of a cellar that had been backfilled. The Hartford Courant reports that further investigation revealed eighteenth-century artifacts as well as a few from the seventeenth century, including pottery, food waste, nails, and clay pipes at a site thought to have been the home of Captain John Mason. In 1637, Mason led English colonists, allied with Narragansetts, in the “Mystic Massacre,” which killed approximately 500 Pequot men, women, and children living in a fortified village. “It may be impossible to prove a direct association with Mason, but it is currently our working hypothesis that this was his ca. 1635 house,” Jones said. For more on archaeology in New England, go to "Peeping through the Leaves."
AARS, DENMARK—The Copenhagen Post reports that Bjarne Nielsen of the Vesthimmerlands Museum and his team have found seven mysterious black spots in northeastern Jutland, one of which includes the remains of a stone-lined well, near a Neolithic settlement and graves containing burned human bones. The well measures nearly five and one-half feet deep and contained burned bone fragments. “We believe these are human bones that were crushed after burning. Perhaps because the soul needed to be completely released from the body,” Nielsen said. The other features, also lined with stones, may have been covered by roofs supported by thick poles. Nielsen explained that constructions similar to the well have been found in the United Kingdom, but not in Europe. “This indicates there has been a connection between the Limfjord and England some 4,000 years ago,” he said. For more, go to "The Neolithic Toolkit."
SOUTH SHIELDS, ENGLAND—A second Roman goddess figurine has been unearthed by a WallQuest volunteer digging at Arbeia Roman Fort in northern England. Located on the River Tyne at the eastern end of Hadrian’s Wall, the fort served as supply base where grain was stored for the Roman army. The bronze figurine is thought to represent Ceres, the goddess of agriculture, grain, and fertility, and may have been mounted on a larger piece of furniture. “At first I didn’t believe the goddess was real since the condition seemed pristine and the detail was incredible, but then our site supervisor fell eerily quiet, triggering a hum of authentic excitement,” volunteer Amanda Seim told the Shields Gazette. To read more about Roman finds in England, go to "A Villa under the Garden."
GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN—An excavation in Cyprus’ ancient harbor town of Hala Sultan Tekke has uncovered a late Bronze Age tomb and an associated pit filled with precious artifacts imported from Mesopotamia, Greece, Egypt, and Anatolia. Led by Peter Fischer of the University of Gothenburg, the excavators from the Swedish Cyprus Expedition recovered the remains of eight infants and nine adults who may have been family members. The researchers think the pit may have served as a way to present objects, such as a diadem, pearls, earrings, gold scarabs, and pottery decorated with religious symbols, to the deceased without reopening the tomb. “In the late Bronze age period in Cyprus, people tended to be buried inside their houses rather than in cemeteries. No cemeteries from the period have been found so far, so this could be quite an exciting find in that respect,” Fischer said in an International Business Times report. For more on archaeology in Cyprus, go to "Living the Good Afterlife."
CORNWALL, ENGLAND—The Cornwall Archaeological Unit and English Heritage have unearthed thick stone walls that may date to the sixth century in previously unexcavated terrace areas near the thirteenth-century site of Tintagel Castle. Geophysical surveys of this area suggested that two rooms sit below the surface. The excavation team has also recovered fragments of imported pottery and glass, suggesting that the sixth-century residents of the site were wealthy. Among their belongings, archaeologists have found late Roman amphoras and fine red-slip tableware imported from western Turkey. “The discovery of high-status buildings—potentially a royal palace complex—at Tintagel is transforming our understanding of the site,” Win Scutt of English Heritage told The Telegraph. To read about excavations of another castle, go to "Letter from England: Stronghold of the Kings in the North."
SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH—Brian Codding and Elic Weitzel of the University of Utah employed a database of more than 3,500 radiocarbon dates obtained from charcoal, nutshells, animal bones, and other artifacts found in North America to reconstruct population histories dating back 15,000 years. Assuming that as populations grew they would leave behind more artifacts, they found that the population in eastern North America nearly doubled some 6,900 years ago, and continued to grow rapidly until 5,200 years ago. Plants are thought to have been domesticated in the region about 5,000 years ago. “These people were producing food to feed themselves and their families [by farming], they’re still hunting and foraging,” Brian Codding said in a report by The Independent. Archaeological evidence from the region suggests that those first crops included squash, sunflower, marshelder, and pitseed goosefoot, a grain related to quinoa. For more, go to "Europe's First Farmers."
BARCELONA, SPAIN—Ten volunteers used only their hands and teeth to eat raw, roasted, and boiled lamb for a study led by Antonio J. Romero of the University of the Basque Country. According to a UPI report, the scientists then analyzed the marks left on the 90 lamb bones, and found that men left more marks than women, but the marks themselves were indistinguishable. Tooth marks appeared more regularly in the bones of meat that had been roasted or boiled. Raw bones had more damage on the tips and edges, and tended to be crushed more often. The study will help archaeologists distinguish between bones gnawed on by hominins and those left behind by other carnivores who may have visited sites used by early hunter-gatherers. To read more on hunter-gatherers, go to "The First Casus Belli."
UNIVERSITY PARK, PENNSYLVANIA—Gary Perdew of Pennsylvania State University and his team examined the genomes of three Neanderthals, a Denisovan, a modern human who lived some 45,000 years ago, and living people, and found that all of the modern humans carried a mutation that helps regulate the body’s response to some of the carcinogens in wood smoke and charred meat. The other hominins did not have the mutation. As a result, they may have been more susceptible to lung infections and other toxic effects of wood smoke while eating cooked food and using fire for light, warmth, and protection from predators. “We prospered because of this mutation,” Perdew said in a report in The Guardian. “I wouldn’t say Neanderthals died out because of it, but it could have been a contributing factor.” However, some researchers caution that scientists are not able to observe the reactions of extinct hominins sitting around a fire. “The problem is it’s really difficult to test,” explained David Wright of Seoul National University and the University of York. For more, go to "Catching Fire and Keeping It."
POMPEII, ITALY—The Local, Italy, reports that cooking equipment, such as metal grills, pots, pans, and earthenware crocks, have been returned to the kitchen in the Fullonica di Stephanus, a three-story launderette where the garments of wealthy Romans were washed some 2,000 years ago. The equipment was discovered in the launderette in 1912, but had been moved to other areas of Pompeii over the years. The grills were placed over troughs where charcoal fires were lit. Meat, fish, and vegetables were then placed on the grills. Soups and stews were cooked in pots and pans on tripods placed in the coals. “We’re delighted the pieces have finally been put back on display where they were found,” said Massimo Osanna, archaeological superintendent of Pompeii. For more on Pompeii, go to "Family History."
SOUTH CAMDEN, NEW JERSEY—Ancient hearths and some 1,300 artifacts, including unglazed ceramics and pieces of soapstone, have been found at an industrial construction site along the South Camden waterfront. Archaeologists from Richard Grubb & Associates think the site was used by Native Americans for processing and cooking fish around 1400 to 1350 B.C. Native Americans “would have been fishing along the Delaware, utilizing the forests around them for shelter, watercraft … just maximizing the natural resources,” forensic archaeologist Kimberlee Sue Moran of Rutgers University-Camden, said in a report by the Courier-Post. She added that evidence for long-term settlement during this time period is unusual. For more, go to "Possible Revolutionary War Campsite Found in New Jersey."
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS—Lead investigator Nesta Anderson announced at a “Reimagine The Alamo” press conference that more than 300 eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artifacts, including Native American ceramics from the mission era, square nails, and a bone button, have been uncovered near the west wall of the Alamo. The excavation team has also recovered a piece of glass stamped with the words “San Antonio Apothecary,” ceramics from Europe and Mexico, part of a toothbrush, and a blade that may have been part of a utility knife or scissors. “As of yet, we’re not finding a lot of battle-related things,” Anderson said in a Houston Chronicle report. Work at the south wall of the Alamo is now underway as well. For more on archaeology in Texas, go to "Off the Grid: Caddo Mounds State Historic Site."
COUNTY DOWN, NORTHERN IRELAND—Excavations on the grounds of an eighteenth-century country house known as Hillsborough Castle have uncovered a skeleton thought to have belonged to a young woman who lived 1,000 years ago. Archaeologists and volunteers had been looking for traces of a medieval church on the site when they found the remains and signs of additional burials. “We arrived hoping to find the remains of a fifteenth- or sixteenth-century church, but about two hours into our first day we uncovered a skeleton,” Jonathan Barkley of Northern Archaeology Consultancy told BBC News. The skeleton will be studied before it is reburied. No other human remains at the site will be removed. The excavation is being conducted ahead of construction to transform the castle into a tourist destination. For more, go to "Saving Northern Ireland's Noble Bog."
FOGGIA, ITALY—Italian researchers suggest that Joan of Arc’s visions may have been caused by a form of epilepsy, according to a report in Live Science. Epileptic seizures occur when electrical signals in the brain misfire, and can result in muscle movements or confusion, or cause the subject to hear voices. Guiseppe d’Orsi of the University of Foggia and Paola Tinuper of the University of Bologna examined documentation of the fifteenth-century trial in which Joan was accused of heresy and witchcraft. Joan reported hearing voices and seeing Christian saints, which d’Orsi and Tinuper say are symptoms of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features. This type of epilepsy may be inherited and has been linked to certain genes. D’Orsi and Tinuper have been looking for letters written by Joan of Arc, which she reportedly sealed with red wax, a fingerprint, and a hair, which they would like to test for these particular genes. So far, they haven’t found any surviving examples. For more, go to "France’s Roman Heritage."
NOVA SCOTIA, CANADA—Large pieces of what could be a nineteenth-century ship were recovered by the Canadian Coast Guard in waters near Nova Scotia. According to a report in CBC News, the crew of the CCGS Alfred Needler was conducting a survey of fish in the region when the nets hauled in the sections of the shipwreck. Katie Cottreau-Robins, curator of archaeology for the Nova Scotia Museum, and her team examined the fragments when they were brought to shore. Some of the pieces are better preserved than others. “We have a section of the hull where there’s copper sheathing on the outside and we could see that very clearly, and all the rivets holding the copper onto the frame,” she said. A search of Nova Scotia’s shipwreck database suggests the vessel could be a Swedish ship built in 1877 that sank in bad weather in 1905. Cottreau-Robins said that her team will continue to research the shipwreck pieces and try to find the best place to conserve them. To read about another well-known shipwreck found in Canadian waters, go to "Franklin’s Last Voyage."
NORDLAND COUNTY, NORWAY—A faint 5,000-year-old carving depicting a figure on skis has been vandalized by a teenaged boy who used a sharp object to scratch over the original etching. The Local, Norway, reports that the perpetrator thought he was making the rock art easier for other visitors to see. Other images in the hunting scene, which is located on the island of Tro in northern Norway, were also defaced. “It’s a tragedy, because it’s one of the most famous Norwegian historical sites,” says Bård Anders Langø, mayor of the Alstahaug municipality. Archaeologists will study the damage to the site, but Langø says they suspect it is irreversible. For more, go to "Artifact: Norway Viking Sword."
BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA—Cold-weather gear may have helped early modern humans survive while Neanderthals died out, according to a new study led by Mark Collard, a visiting fellow at Simon Fraser University. He noted that figurines discovered in Siberia dating back 24,000 years are thought to depict people wearing furry, hooded outfits. Bone needles, pelt scrapers, and the bones of creatures such as rabbits, foxes, mink, and wolverine have been found at modern human campsites. Their fur may have been used to make such warm garments. Collard explained that wolverine fur makes an excellent ruff for a parka hood because it shields one from the wind, sheds hoarfrost, and is durable. Neanderthals are thought to have worn draped animal skins, since the tools associated with crafting closely fitted garments have not been found at Neanderthal sites. Inadequate clothing could have left Neanderthals vulnerable to frostbite and hypothermia, and may have limited their ability to look for food. “Keeping children warm particularly is likely to have led to many more surviving childhood which would have improved population size,” Chris Stringer of London’s Natural History Museum commented in The Telegraph. For more, go to "Decoding Neanderthal Genetics."
OXFORD, ENGLAND—It had been previously believed that the first rice grown in northern China, Japan, and on the Korean peninsula was only of the sticky japonica variety, which requires cultivation in dry fields. But a team led by Masahiko Kumagai of the University of Tokyo obtained DNA from carbonized rice ranging in age from 900 to 2,800 years old found at archaeological sites in Japan and Korea. The scientists then compared the genomes of the ancient rice samples to a database of more than 200 cultivated and wild rice DNA samples from around the world. They found that some of the ancient grains seemed to be more similar to the indica variety of rice, which has a long grain, grows submerged in water, and is usually associated with the tropics. This suggests that the crops were moved long distances. Michael Purugganan of New York University told The Christian Science Monitor that early farmers may have tried to grow “everything they could get their hands on,” until they developed a crop that adapted well to the environment. To read about the earliest evidence for tea drinking in China, go to "The Price of Tea in China."
DUBLIN, IRELAND—An American student from New York University was taking a tour of Ireland’s Omey Island with archaeologist Michael Gibbons when she discovered a twelfth-century kite brooch in some rabbit burrows. The brooch would have been used to fasten a cloak or shawl. “I kept it with me until I caught up with Michael and he was very intrigued," Gibbons told Irish Central. "He had me take him back to the site at which I found it. I didn’t fully realize how important the find was at the time. Now, I’m amazed and surprised and I’m very happy that I was able to place it in the hands of people who would appreciate it.” The artifact will be housed in the National Museum of Ireland. To read more about medieval archaeology in Ireland, go to "The Vikings in Ireland."
XUNANTUNICH, BELIZE—Archaeologist Jaime Awe of Northern Arizona University has excavated a tomb at the Maya site of Xunantunich. According to The Reporter Newspaper, the tomb contained skeletal remains thought to have belonged to a male ruler, based upon the size and appearance of the femurs, skull, and teeth. The remains of an animal—perhaps a deer or a jaguar—were also found in the chamber, along with ceramics and pieces of jade. “What’s amazing about the discovery of this tomb is that, we know that archaeologists have been working at Xunantunich since the 1890s," says Awe. "That’s more than a century of continuous archaeological work at the site. And, never before have we found a tomb. Well, this tomb is also remarkable in other ways, it is one of the largest burial chambers we have ever found.” To read about the discovery of another Maya ruler's burial , go to "Tomb of the Vulture Lord."