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<p>KONYA, TURKEY&mdash;Rules for horse

May 4, 2016

KONYA, TURKEY—Rules for horse racing have been translated from a 2,000-year-old stone monument in central Anatolia. Written in Greek, the rules state that a horse that finishes first in a race cannot compete in another race, and an owner whose horse finishes first cannot enter another horse in additional races. The monument, located near a hippodrome, was dedicated to Lukuyanus, according to a report in The Daily Sabah. “Lukuyanus was a Roman jockey, and this structure here shows this was a place dedicated to horse racing and horse breeding," Hasan Bahar of Selçuk University explained. "Hittites used to build monuments here in a tribute to the mountains they deemed holy and we believe horse racing was a dedication to those holy mountains as well in the Roman era.” To read more about equine-related archaeology, go to "The Story of the Horse."

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May 4, 2016

LIMA, PERU—Andina reports that a geoglyph has been discovered at Pampa de Majuelos in the Nazca desert by archaeologists Masato Sakai and Jorge Olano of Yamagata University. Sakai claims that the image, which measures more than 90 feet long, depicts an imaginary animal whose head with a long tongue are on the left, and whose spotted body and many legs are to the right. He suggests the image was created by moving stones from the whitish-colored ground and piling them to shape the animal in low relief. “This is a characteristic technique of geoglyphs and [the find] may date back to 2,000 to 2,500 years ago,” he said. To read about another mysterious Peruvian feature, go to "An Overlooked Inca Wonder."

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May 3, 2016

ATHENS, GEORGIA—Researchers from the University of Georgia, the University of Florida, Pennsylvania State University, and Florida Gulf Coast University are studying Mound Key, an island built by the Calusa from hundreds of millions of shells, bones, and other discarded materials in Estero Bay. Extensive radiocarbon dates, taken from the island’s different layers, indicate that the younger building materials are found on the bottom, even though you would expect to find them on the top. “It appears that the island was occupied early in its existence, abandoned, and then reoccupied,” R&D Magazine reports. “During Mound Key’s second occupation, its inhabitants substantially altered the landscape by redepositing old midden to form at least the upper portions of the two largest midden-mounds.” To read about how modern-day Native Americans in Florida uphold ancient traditions, go to "People of the White Earth."

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May 3, 2016

MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA—According to a report in Live Science, researchers have compared sonar images of the wreck of USS Independence (CVL22) with declassified documents to determine how the aircraft carrier was used in the years following World War II. Marine archaeologist James Delgado of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration said that the Independence was one of a fleet of vessels assigned to Operation Crossroads to examine the effects of shock waves, heat, and radiation from the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. The Independence survived the tests and so was used for decontamination studies, and then as a laboratory for testing ways to handle radioactive waste. In 1951, the Navy stored radioactive waste in steel and concrete drums on the cleaned ship and then sank it in Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. “Independence, by the time it was sunk, was at about a level that you would get with an average X-ray,” Delgado said. “Now we not only know what shape she’s in and where she lies, but also exactly what happened to the Independence.” To read more, go to "Archaeology of WWII."

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May 3, 2016

GOTHENBURG, SWEDEN—Per Homberg of the University of Gothenburg suggests that the inscription on the Rök Runestone, which dates to the late A.D. 800s, does not refer to acts of heroism, kings, and wars, as had been previously thought, but honors the power of writing itself and harnesses it to honor the dead. Homberg says the Rök Runestone is unusual because its text is long, but its meaning is similar to that expressed on other runestones. “The riddles on the front of the stone have to do with the daylight that we need to be able to read the runes, and on the back are riddles that probably have to do with the carving of the runes and the runic alphabet, the so-called futhark,” he said in Laboratory Equipment. In this interpretation, the 24 “kings” mentioned at the bottom of the stone are not rulers, but the set of runes themselves. To read more about the Viking world, go to "The First Vikings."

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May 3, 2016

SAINT AUGUSTINE, FLORIDA—KAGS TV reports that city archaeologist Carl Halbirt unearthed an intact pot at the site of the Mill Top Tavern, across from the Castillo de San Marcos. He thinks the pot was buried in a pit at least 300 years ago by Native Americans and may have had ritual significance. The pot contained pieces of another pot and soil that will be analyzed.  

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May 2, 2016

CORNWALL, ENGLAND—Culture 24 reports that restoration work at the Mount Edgcumbe House and Country Park revealed the cobbled floor and central wall of the property’s upper deer house. The ground floor of the structure would have supported a timber manger to feed the deer that lived on the land; the hay was stored on the structure’s upper floor. The team also exposed the elaborate cobbled floor in the park’s stone seating area. Visitors would have been able to sit and look across the deer park and out to the sea from the seat. “Although the building had partially collapsed and its original form is uncertain—there are no known surviving photos—the team managed to clear away rubble and soil to reveal the original plan of the building along with a rear ledge which would have supported a wooden seat,” explained James Gossip of the Cornwall Archaeological Unit. Additional evidence suggests that the slate roof over the seat had cast iron gutters to carry water away from the structure. Both buildings are thought to be between two and three hundred years old. To read more about archaeology on an English estate, go to "The Many Lives of an English Manor House."

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May 2, 2016

BRATISLAVA, SLOVAKIA—According to a report in The Slovak Spectator, a joint Kuwaiti-Slovak archaeological team working at the Nestorian Christian settlement of Al-Qusur on Failaka Island in the Persian Gulf unearthed a palace dating from the seventh to ninth centuries, a sewerage system, and the base of a stone tower. “According to a preliminary analysis, it’s a unique so-called windcatch-tower, utilizing an ingenious interior cooling system based on the flow of air, caught by openings in the tower superstructure,” Matej Ruttkay, director of the Slovak Academy of Sciences’ Archaeological Institute, told the TASR newswire. Similar cooling systems have been found in the Middle East and North Africa. To read in-depth about the site, go to "Archaeology Island." 

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May 2, 2016

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS—BBC News reports that a new genetic study of the remains of 51 Europeans between 45,000 and 7,000 years old has been led by David Reich at Harvard Medical School. The results suggests that beginning 37,00 years ago, all Europeans came from a single founding population that developed deep branches in different parts of Europe. At the end of the last Ice Age some 19,000 years ago, people thought to have come from Spain spread northward. Then some 14,000 years ago, populations from Turkey and Greece spread westward into Europe and replaced the first group. “We see multiple, huge movements of people displacing previous ones,” said Reich. The analysis also suggests that Ice Age Europeans had dark complexions and brown eyes until about 14,000 years ago, when blue eyes began to spread across the population. Pale skin began to appear after 7,000 years ago. Earlier populations also had more Neanderthal DNA than present-day people, which is consistent with the idea that it may have had harmful effects on modern humans and was lost over time through natural selection. To read about a masterpiece of Paleolithic art, go to "New Life for Lion Man." 

Categories: Blog

<p>KONYA, TURKEY&mdash;Rules for horse

May 2, 2016

KONYA, TURKEY—Rules for horse racing have been translated from a 2,000-year-old stone monument in central Anatolia. Written in Greek, the rules state that a horse that finishes first in a race cannot compete in another race, and an owner whose horse finishes first cannot enter another horse in additional races. The monument, located near a hippodrome, was dedicated to Lukuyanus, according to a report in The Daily Sabah. “Lukuyanus was a Roman jockey, and this structure here shows this was a place dedicated to horse racing and horse breeding," Hasan Bahar of Selçuk University explained. "Hittites used to build monuments here in a tribute to the mountains they deemed holy and we believe horse racing was a dedication to those holy mountains as well in the Roman era.” To read more about equine-related archaeology, go to "The Story of the Horse."

Categories: Blog

<p><img src="http://www.archaeology.org

April 29, 2016

LIMA, PERU—Andina reports that a geoglyph has been discovered at Pampa de Majuelos in the Nazca desert by archaeologists Masato Sakai and Jorge Olano of Yamagata University. Sakai claims that the image, which measures more than 90 feet long, depicts an imaginary animal whose head with a long tongue are on the left, and whose spotted body and many legs are to the right. He suggests the image was created by moving stones from the whitish-colored ground and piling them to shape the animal in low relief. “This is a characteristic technique of geoglyphs and [the find] may date back to 2,000 to 2,500 years ago,” he said. To read about another mysterious Peruvian feature, go to "An Overlooked Inca Wonder."

Categories: Blog

<p><img src="http://www.archaeology.org

April 29, 2016

TÜBINGEN, GERMANY—A team of researchers led by Sireen El Zaatari of the University of Tübingen examined the fossilized molars of 52 Neanderthals and modern humans from the Upper Paleolithic. They analyzed the microscopic wear and tear on the teeth to try to determine what the Neanderthals and modern humans ate, and how their diets related to the environment at the time. According to a report in International Business Times, the scientists found that the Neanderthals’ diet varied in response to what was readily available in the environment, while the diet eaten by modern humans was less affected by slight changes in climatic conditions. The Neanderthals are thought to have eaten more meat when they lived in open, cold steppe environments, and more plants, seeds, and nuts when living in forests. The modern humans are thought to have stuck with a diet based on more plant-based foods. “To be able to do this, they may have developed tools to extract dietary resources from their environment,” said El Zaatari. For more, go to "Decoding Neanderthal Genetics," which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2014.

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April 29, 2016

JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA—According to a report in the Williamsburg Yorktown Daily, archaeologists from Jamestown Rediscovery found an iron object, described by conservator Katharine Corneli as a “semi-circle with a squiggly line in it,” in a cellar that lies just outside the boundaries of the original 1608 James Fort. Researchers think that it could be a fragment of a tool for cooking and baking, which would have had small legs to support a pot or Dutch oven over a fire. A pot fragment in the Jamestown Rediscovery artifact collection has marks on its base that may have come from cooking on such a grill. This object may have been deposited in the cellar as filler when the structure was abandoned. The rest of it may have been recycled into another item, but archaeologists will keep an eye out for additional grill pieces. For more, go to "Jamestown’s VIPs," which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2015.

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April 29, 2016

TOMARES, SPAIN—Construction workers in southern Spain discovered 19 amphoras containing 1,300 pounds of Roman coins. The unused bronze and silver-coated coins date to the fourth century A.D. Ana Navarro of the Seville Archaeological Museum said that the coins studied so far bear images of the emperors Constantine and Maximian. She thinks that the coins may have been stored to pay soldiers or civil servants. “It is a unique collection and there are very few similar cases,” she said in a BBC News report. To read about a large collection of Roman coins found in England, go to "Seaton Down Hoard," which was one of ARCHAEOLOGY's Top 10 Discoveries of 2014.

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April 28, 2016

CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA—Excavations at Highland, the home of the United States' fifth president, James Monroe, have uncovered the foundation of a large house, according to a report in The Virginia Gazette. It had been thought that the modest building on the site was Monroe’s home, built in 1799, but dendrochronology of its corner posts suggests that they were cut between 1815 and 1818. This building is now thought to have been constructed during renovations of the property, perhaps as a guest house, mentioned by Monroe in a letter to his son-in-law in September 1818. “This finding represents a breakthrough in how the nation understands Monroe and how he lived,” said Sara Bon-Harper, executive director of James Monroe’s Highland. The newly uncovered foundation includes a chimney base and a stone cellar. Charred wood suggests that the house was destroyed by fire sometime after Monroe sold the property in 1826. Later newspaper accounts refer to the destruction of the former Monroe residence, and the construction of another home on the property in the 1870s. To read more about archaeology in Virginia, go to "Letter from Virginia: Free Before Emancipation."

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April 28, 2016

STANFORD, CALIFORNIA—Scientists from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology teamed with Oussama Khatib, a professor of computer science at Stanford University, to create OceanOne, a prototype humanoid robot designed to perform intricate underwater tasks. The robot has a head with stereoscopic vision and two fully articulated arms and hands that relay haptic feedback to the pilot’s controls. “You can feel exactly what the robot is doing. It’s almost like you are there; with the sense of touch you create a new dimension of perception,” Khatib told Engineering.com. In addition, sensors in the body monitor the current and automatically adjust to keep the robot stable. To test OceanOne, the team explored the wreck of La Lune, King Louis XIV’s flagship, which sank in 1664 off the southern coast of France. The deep water makes it a dangerous place for human divers, but OceanOne, guided by Khatib back on the boat, carefully recovered a vase from the wreck and placed it in a recovery basket. For more on underwater archaeology, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks..."

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<p>SPOKANE, WASHINGTON&mdash;According

April 28, 2016

SPOKANE, WASHINGTON—According to an Associated Press report, the Army Corps of Engineers has determined that Kennewick Man, discovered in 1996 in southeastern Washington, is related to modern Native American populations. “I am confident that our review and analysis of new skeletal, statistical, and genetic evidence have convincingly led to a Native American Determination,” said Brig. Gen. Scott A. Spellmon, commander of the corps’ Northwestern Division. This means that the 8,500-year-old remains are now covered by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Kennewick Man is currently held at the Burke Museum in Seattle, under the custody of the Army Corps of Engineers. Interested tribes, such as the Colville, Yakama, Umatilla, Nez Perce, and Wanapum Indians, are planning to submit a joint request for the repatriation of the remains, also known as the Ancient One. To read about the earliest people to arrive in North America, go to "America, in the Beginning."

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April 28, 2016

PARIS, FRANCE—Camille Daujeard and Denis Geraads of France’s National Museum of Natural History recently examined a hominin femur recovered from a Moroccan cave in 1994. Likely to have belonged to Homo rhodesiensis, the bone is covered with tooth marks that the researchers say were left by a large carnivore, possibly an extinct hyena. A report in Live Science adds that the marks were covered with sediment, so they were likely to have been made at the time of the hominin’s death or shortly after it. “During this period, early humans likely competed for space [such as natural caves] and resources with large carnivores, who occupied many of the same areas,” said Daujeard. The cave also contained the bones of animals such as gazelles and jackals, and stone tools dating to the Middle Pleistocene, between 781,000 and 126,000 years ago. Hominins are also thought to have scavenged and hunted large carnivores at this time. To read more about Pleistocene archaeology, go to "An Opportunity for Early Humans in China."

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April 27, 2016

HAIFA, ISRAEL—A birdwatcher visiting Tel Dor last winter discovered an Egyptian scarab brought to the surface by heavy rains. According to a report in The Times of Israel, the seal is thought to have belonged to an official from the Thirteenth Dynasty, dating back to the eighteenth century B.C. “The scarab belonged to a very senior figure in the kingdom, probably the viceroy responsible for the royal treasury,” said Ayelet Gilboa of the University of Haifa. Researchers think the scarab may have been carried to northern Israel by the viceroy or his representative, or it may have arrived at the site later, during the Roman period, when there was a demand for Egyptian artifacts. 

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<p>TAICHUNG CITY, TAIWAN&mdash;Among

April 27, 2016

TAICHUNG CITY, TAIWAN—Among the 48 sets of human remains unearthed in an ancient cemetery in central Taiwan, archaeologists found the graves of five children, and the remains of a woman who had been buried with an infant in her arms some 4,800 years ago. “When it was unearthed, all of the archaeologists and staff members were shocked. Why? Because the mother was looking down at the baby in her hands,” Chu Whei-lee of Taiwan’s National Museum of Natural Science said in a Reuters report.

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