NICOSIA, CYPRUS—More than 20 round buildings dating to as early as the ninth century B.C. have been unearthed at a village site near the southern coast of Cyprus. The Associated Press reports that the walls of the buildings were made of earth and wooden poles, and many of the buildings had plastered floors. Most also had fireplaces. The structures had been placed around a larger, circular building thought to have served as a communal space. The excavation team, led by Francois Briois of France’s School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences and Jean-Denis Vigne of France’s National Center for Scientific Research-National Museum of Natural History, also unearthed stone tools and vessels, shell beads and pendants, a millstone, the remains of domesticated dogs and cats, and bones of hunted boar and birds. The scientists also found evidence that the village inhabitants cultivated emmer wheat. For more, go to "Palindrome Amulet Unearthed in Cyprus."
OXFORD, ENGLAND—Capuchin monkeys living in Brazil’s Serra da Capivara National Park have been using stone tools to open cashew nuts for at least 700 years, or about 100 generations, according to an investigation conducted by a team from Oxford University and the University of São Paulo. Michael Haslam, head of Oxford’s Primate Archaeology project, said in a Los Angeles Times report that the tools changed little over time, suggesting that the capuchins “are very good at transmitting the behavior over and over again.” The tools include small, hard stone hammers and sandstone anvils, which are left in caches at cashew processing sites. Haslam and his colleagues say the tools are the oldest non-human tools found outside of Africa, and the oldest-known tools not made by humans or chimpanzees. “It may be that part of the reason that capuchins were able to colonize this area is that they found a technological solution—stone tool use—to overcome these plant defenses,” Haslam said. Capuchins are thought to have arrived in the region a half-million years ago. Further excavation could reveal a long history of capuchin tool use. For more, go to "Earliest Stone Tools."
LINDISFARNE, ENGLAND—A volunteer working on an excavation on Lindisfarne Island off England’s northwest coast has discovered an Anglo-Saxon grave marker dating to the mid-seventh or eighth century A.D. According to the BBC, the team is searching for evidence of the earliest monastery on the island, and the marker may prove to be an important clue to its location. "It's unimpeachable evidence for Anglo-Saxon activity and confirms we're hot on the trail of the very earliest monastery here in Lindisfarne," says Durham University archaeologist David Petts, who is the project’s co-director. The name on the stone appears to end in “frith,” which is common in Anglo-Saxon names. Scholars are still deciphering the rest of the letters on the grave marker. To read more about Anglo-Saxon archaeology in this part of England, go to “Stronghold of the Kings in the North.”
VORDINGBORG, DENMARK—Excavations at a twelfth-century castle on the south coast of the Danish island of Zealand have shown much of its fortifications were built during the reign of a king who was previously not believed to have had a role in its the construction. The Local reports that Vordingborg Castle was originally built by King Valdemar the Great, and that scholars believed subsequent building at the site was conducted by the Danish kings Valdemar II and Valdemar the Younger. But now archaeologists have radiocarbon dated extensive wood construction at the site to the late twelfth century, when Denmark was ruled by King Canute VI. "He didn't just build over the castle, he expanded it continuously," says Aarhus University archaeologist Lars Sass Jensen. "He was, in other words, a king that invested heavily in the site as well as in its political function as a base for Baltic Sea expansion." For more on medieval archaeology in Denmark, go to “Bluetooth’s Fortress.”
ROME, ITALY—Construction of a new Orthodox church in a Roman suburb has led to the discovery of an ancient Roman bathhouse and a number of tombs dating to between the first and fourth centuries A.D. The Local reports that archaeologists found the bathhouse's heating and plumbing systems intact, as well as its tile floor mosaics. The bathhouse may have once been part of a villa, but it was built near to a heavily trafficked road that led to Rome’s port, so it might have been frequented by travelers. “The baths could have been a stop-off point along the road," says archaeologist Renato Sebastiani. "We know of the existence of others.” The tombs belonged to lower-middle class Romans, and while the earliest individuals were cremated, later ones were interred according to early Christian practices. To read in-depth about archaeology in the area, go to “Rome’s Imperial Port.”
ASHKELON, ISRAEL—Haaretz reports that archaeologists have excavated a 3,000-year-old Philistine cemetery at the site of Ashekelon in southern Israel. The first such necropolis to be discovered, it consists of more than 150 burials, some of which follow Aegean funerary practices, rather than Near Eastern ones. That supports the idea that the Philistines originated in the Aegean and were not indigenous to the Levant. “This forms a baseline for what 'Philistine' is," says Wheaton College archaeologist Daniel M. Master, who is the dig's co-director. "We can already say that the cultural practices we see here are substantially different from the Canaanites and the highlanders in the east." Small ceramic perfume vials were found near the skulls of many of the skeletons, and a pottery sherd inscribed with Crypto-Minoan writing dating to the eleventh century B.C. was also discovered. To read more about the Philistines, go to “Temple of the Storm God.”
FLORENCE, ITALY—The Local, Italy, reports that a skull from Calabria’s Paleolithic site of Grotta del Romito has been used to recreate the brain of a 12-year-old boy who lived around 17,000 years ago. “The boy was still growing and therefore the bones of his skull were quite soft,” said Fabio Martini of the University of Florence. Martini explained that the pressure of the growing brain left an imprint on the inside of the skull, which can be read with 3-D scanners. Scientists hope to compare the young hunter-gatherer’s brain structures to those of children living today, especially the areas of the brain responsible for language, social interaction, and spatial coordination. For more, go to "Neanderthal Brain Strain."
SAN LUIS OBISPO, CALIFORNIA—Analysis of DNA collected from the guts of several mummies shows that they contained bacteria that are resistant to most of today’s antibiotics, according to a report in New Scientist. Tasha Santiago-Rodriguez of California Polytechnic State University and her team collected samples from three Inca mummies dated to the tenth to fourteenth centuries, and six mummies from Italy, dated to between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries. The findings suggest that the genes for resistance existed in bacteria in the human gut before Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928, and therefore before antibiotic use became common. “When you think about it, almost all these antibiotics are naturally produced, so it makes sense to find antibiotic genes as well,” Santiago-Rodriguez said. For more, go to "Ötzi the Iceman Carried Ulcer-Causing Bacteria."
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA—Archaeologist Robin Torrence of the Australian Museum and her colleagues analyzed 15 obsidian artifacts from the Nanggu site in the Solomon Islands. It had been thought that these 3,000-year-old tools were applied to hides to make cloth, but according to a report by Live Science, early Polynesians employed few animal skins, and those that were used required little preparation. The team of researchers recreated the obsidian tools by shaping a short, sharp point on naturally occurring flakes of volcanic glass. Then they experimented with creating tattoos on pigskin with black charcoal pigment and red ochre. Both the ancient tools and the new ones showed similar signs of wear, including microscopic chipping, rounding, and blunting of the edges. In addition, residues of blood, charcoal, and ochre were found on the ancient tools. Torrence thinks that archaeologists could look for comparable obsidian tools at sites where tattooing might have been practiced, since human skin is rarely preserved in the archaeological record. To read in-depth about evidence of tattooing in the archaeological record, go to "Ancient Tattoos."
MOSCOW, RUSSIA—Scientists led by a team from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) used ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to analyze oxygen molecules in bitumen samples taken from a fifth-century B.C. amphora found near the Black Sea. According to Greek Reporter, the ancient Greeks used bitumen in construction, medicine, and warfare. The researchers think this amphora may have been used to collect bitumen on the Taman Peninsula, where there are petroleum seeps. The amount of oxygen in the sample from the amphora suggests that it had been exposed to ozone and had been degrading for about 2,500 years. Evgeny Nikolaev, head of MIPT’s Laboratory of Ion and Molecular Physics, explained that this analysis of ancient bitumen has helped scientists understand how petroleum changes over long periods of time. He added that the use of ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry could help archaeologists learn more about goods and trade routes in the ancient world. For more on the study of amphoras, go to "Trash Talk."
TÜBINGEN, GERMANY—Evidence of cannibalistic behavior among Neanderthals living in northern Europe between 40,500 and 45,500 years ago has been discovered in well-preserved bone fragments from the third cavern of the Goyet caves in Belgium, which was excavated nearly 150 years ago. A team of researchers from the University of Tübingen and the University of the Basque Country identified 99 Neanderthal bone fragments, thought to represent the remains of four adolescents or adults and one child, from the collection. A third of those remains bear cut marks, pits, and notches, interpreted by the researchers as evidence that the individuals had been skinned and cut up and had marrow extracted from their bones. “The many remains of horses and reindeer found in Goyet were processed the same way,” Hervé Bocherens of the University of Tübingen said in a report by The Sydney Morning Herald. Marks on a few of the Neanderthal bones from the site indicate that they had been used as tools. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed that the Goyet Neanderthals resembled Neanderthals from Germany, Croatia, and Spain. This suggests that Europe’s Neanderthal population was small. For more, go to "Colonial Cannibalism."
OXFORD, ENGLAND—Did climate instability in southern Africa inspire the technological advances of the Middle Stone Age? A team led by Patrick Roberts of the University of Oxford analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in ostrich eggshells, animal remains, and shellfish to learn about environmental conditions at Blombos Cave, occupied between 98,000 and 73,000 years ago, and Klipdrift Shelter, occupied between 72,000 and 59,000 years ago. The scientists found that changes in the environment, including changes in vegetation, aridity, rainfall seasonality, and sea temperature, may not have been directly linked with cultural advances, such as the use of bone tools, ochre production, and personal ornamentation, at these two sites. “This suggests that we have to consider that other factors drove human innovation at this stage in our species’ evolution,” Roberts said in a report by the International Business Times. For more on archaeology in South Africa, go to "The First Spears."
CAMPO BELO DO SUL, BRAZIL—A new analysis of pit houses in Brazil’s southern highlands suggests that the structures were occupied continuously for centuries. It had been thought that proto-Jê pit houses were lived in intermittently, but new radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modeling indicate that a dwelling in Campo Belo do Sul was occupied from 1395 to 1650. Researchers from the Universidade de São Paulo, the University of Reading, Unisul, and Central Universitário Univates, and the University of Exeter found 12 preserved floors in this house, five of which were covered by burned and collapsed roofs. Homes were also expanded outward as needed with different building techniques to complete the renovations as time passed. The team also found evidence that the proto-Jê cultivated plants, and had burial rites that suggest social hierarchies were in place. “We now know more about the way these groups lived, and are able to challenge the view, dominant until relatively recently, that these were marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America,” lead researcher Jonas Gregorio de Souza said in a UPI report. For more, go to "Off the Grid: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil."
LEICESTER, ENGLAND—A team of archaeologists from University of Leicester Archaeological Services excavated 83 skeletons in a Late Roman cemetery in Leicester’s West End. In one of the burials, they found the remains of a middle-aged man who had been buried wearing a type of belt often worn by soldiers stationed on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire. “The survival of the delicate thin sheet bronze belt plate is remarkable,” post-excavation manager Nick Cooper told the Leicester Mercury. The belt plate, decorated with interlocking spirals, was probably riveted to a wide leather belt or girdle. It had a thinner strap, capped with a tapered strap end, that ran through the buckle to secure it. The strap end features crouching dogs on either side, while the buckle bears images of dolphin heads. The condition of the man’s skeleton supports the idea that he had been a soldier. The researchers found evidence of a healed fracture in his left forearm, perhaps from warding off a blow with a raised arm, and signs of muscle damage in his upper right arm and shoulder. The muscle damage could have been caused by repeated throwing and lifting. To read about another discovery in Leicester, go to "Richard III’s Last Act."
BEAUFORT, SOUTH CAROLINA—Archaeologists and volunteers say they have found the site of the Battle of Port Royal Island, fought on February 3, 1779, in which American troops led by General William Moultrie defeated British troops led by General Augustine Prevost. Archaeologist Daniel Battle of Cypress Cultural Consultants located “a big field fire,” including cannonballs and canister shot, while searching the area with a metal detector. “We started finding these large amounts of artillery—leaded shot ... we could literally look at patterns forming on the ground from this shot. We could draw a geometric line back to the position of where we could predict the American artillery sitting,” Battle told Bluffton Today. Now the researchers are working to protect the site, located in part on privately owned land. “It was not a strategically important battle, but it was definitely something the Americans needed very badly psychologically,” Battle explained. For more, go to "Off the Grid: Colonial Dorchester, South Carolina."
MITCHELL, SOUTH DAKOTA—Students from the University of Exeter were excavating a pit at a prehistoric village site in South Dakota when they unearthed the remains of a bison. Their professor, Alan Outram, told The Mitchell Republic that the animal’s pelvis, spine, tail, and foot bones were found intact. The students also uncovered some of the bison's ribs and portions of the legs. Outram thinks hunters killed the bison in the summer, then threw the bones into a trash pit after it was butchered. The meat may have been cooked with hot rocks. “That sort of food culture is really a part of their identity,” he said. For more, go to "Bison Bone Mystery."
RAJASTHAN, INDIA—A 5,000-year-old industrial production center featuring furnaces, hearths, and mud-brick structures has been found in northwest India between two channels of the Ghaggar River. According to a report in Frontline, the settlement, occupied for more than 1,000 years, lacked the fortification walls, streets at right angles, citadel, and area for traders and craftsmen usually seen in Harappan sites. One of the furnaces, used for smelting gold and copper, had a platform where the smith could sit and blow through an underground tube to the fire pit. Nearby hearths were used to produce gold jewelry and copper fish hooks and spear heads. Among the artifacts recovered by the team were a copper stylus wrapped with gold foil. Pottery, beads, and jewelry made of shells, carnelian, lapis lazuli, jasper, agate, steatite, and amazonite were also produced in the site’s workshops. Researchers from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) think the site may have been abandoned because of climate change or flooding. For more, go to "India's Village of the Dead."
JERUSALEM, ISRAEL—Archaeologists have reconstructed the possible funeral rites of a 45-year-old woman thought to have been a shaman in northern Israel some 12,000 years ago. Leore Grosman of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and Natalie Munro of the University of Connecticut say the oval grave was first dug out of the bedrock floor of a cave called Hilazon Tachtit, and was then lined with layers of mud, limestone, and other sediments. Shells, gazelle horn cores, and tortoise carapaces were added and covered with a layer of ash and stone flakes. The body was placed in a squatting position, with tortoise shells propping the head and pelvis against the walls of the grave. Animal bones and additional tortoise shells, probably the remains of a ritual meal, were placed around and on top of the body, which was then covered with limestone blocks. The researchers think the grave was then filled with garbage from the funeral feast, before a large triangular block of limestone was finally placed over the grave. “The significant preplanning implies that there was a defined ‘to do’ list, and a working plan of ritual actions and their order,” Grosman said in a Live Science report. For more, go to "12,000-Year-Old Village Unearthed in Israel."
BRISBANE, AUSTRALIA—Marshall Weisler of the University of Queensland and colleagues analyzed the age and geological source of stone adzes discovered in the Tangatatau rock shelter on Mangaia Island. Adzes, used in Polynesian societies to clear land for farming and to build houses, canoes, and bowls, would have been necessary tools for colonizing new lands. The researchers found that the material for making the tools may have come from as far away as the Austral Islands, American Samoa, and the northern Marquesas. This trade contact, over as much as 1,500 miles, is thought to have lasted from A.D. 1300 to the 1600s. “The colonization of Oceania is the greatest maritime migration in human history and Polynesians were really at the top of the game of voyaging and return voyaging and ... bringing all the necessary items to settle and found a new colony,” Weisler told ABC News Australia. He thinks perishable items and marriage partners, goods not left in the archaeological record, may have also made the journey. For more, go to "Canoe & Climate Shed Light on Polynesian Sailing Technology."
MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA—Excavation of the site of the Mistletoe Hotel, which opened in Melbourne in 1855 during a Gold Rush, has recovered some 250,000 artifacts. The colorful hotel had a long history and provided a pub, livery stables, and a meeting space to immigrants landing in the city. “The excavation has uncovered a variety of items—some not seen before—reflecting an explosion of wealth coming into Melbourne and providing a really dynamic picture of the hotel’s past,” Jeremy Smith of Heritage Victoria told the Herald Sun. The artifacts include a gold stick pin and other jewelry; silver coins; beer, wine, champagne, cognac, gin, and rum bottles; a hand gun; a jar lid for “Highly Scented Russian Bear’s Grease;” ceramic figurines; utensils; pipes; and a rising sun hat pin badge from the Australian Commonwealth Military Services. An apartment building will be constructed on the site, which had been covered and protected with a parking lot. For more, go to "Rogues' Gallery: The Convicts of Early Australia."