CARTHAGE, TUNISIA—Haaretz reports that archaeologists digging at the site of the Roman-era Circus of Carthage have discovered a water system that was used to cool down charioteers and horses during races. Excavations led by Tunisia’s National Heritage Institute and the German Archaeological Institute have revealed water-resistant mortar at the median strip of the circus, suggesting water basins were placed there. It’s likely that circus workers would have dipped amphoras into the basins and then sprinkled water on passing horses and chariots. Similar basins have been found at a circus outside of Rome and they are depicted on a mosaic from Carthage that shows the circus. The team also has two other sections of the site under excavation, at the spectators section and at an older Punic-era building that was torn down to accommodate the circus. To read more about chariot racing in antiquity, go to “Artifact: Statuete of an Auriga (Charioteer).”
NANJING, CHINA—A skull bone that may have belonged to the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama, was discovered in China hidden inside a model of a stupa, or Buddhist shrine used for meditation. A report in Live Science explains that the 1,000-year-old model, which measures around 4 feet by 1.5 feet, was found inside a stone chest in a crypt under the Grand Bao’en Temple in Nanjing. Inscriptions engraved on the chest explain that it was constructed during the reign of Emperor Zhenzong (r. A.D. 997-1022) during the Song Dynasty. An inscription found inside the chest explains that after the Buddha entered paranirvana, breaking the cycle of death and rebirth, his remains were divided into 84,000 shares, of which 19 were sent to China. These included the skull bone, which was found inside a gold casket, which was itself inside a silver casket. The archaeologists who made the discovery are agnostic as to whether the bone actually belonged to the Buddha. Buddhist monks have since buried the bone in another temple. For more, go to “Buddhism, in the Beginning.”
PEMBROKSHIRE, WALES—Excavations at an early medieval chapel graveyard on a beach in southwest Wales have revealed Christian burials dating to the early sixth century, making them contemporaries of St. David, the patron saint of Wales. BBC News reports that analysis of skeletons found at similar sites in the region shows that some belonged to people who were not local to the area, but had been born in continental Europe and Ireland. Initial results of the recently discovered remains suggests similar diversity in the group. The Dyfed Archaeological trust is conducting the excavation of the cemetery because the burials are at risk of being washed out to sea. For more on archaeology in Wales, go to "Hillforts of the Iron Age."
KØGE, DENMARK—Archaeologist Jens Ulriksen thinks that a fire was deliberately set 1,000 years ago at the Viking castle Vallø Borgring, and has requested the assistance of police dogs and a fire safety investigator. “The outer posts of the east gate are completely charred, and there are signs of burning on the inside,” he told The Copenhagen Post. The unfinished structure, built on a man-made plateau, is one of five known ring fortresses in Denmark, and is thought to have been the last one built by the Danish king Harald Bluetooth. “Our theory right now is that other powerful men in the country attacked the castle and set fire to the gates,” Ulriksen added. For more, go to "Bluetooth's Fortress."
DEVON, ENGLAND—A medieval manor known as North Hall is being excavated in the village of Widecombe in southwest England. A ditch at the edge of the site is thought to have been a moat that was coupled with an earthwork to defend the house. “We think it was attacked at least twice in the Middle Ages by brigands on the moor,” Mike Nendick, Dartmoor National Park spokesperson, told The Plymouth Herald. The team of archaeologists and volunteers has also recovered cobbles, a section of wall, flag stones, pottery, post holes, palisades, and wooden beam slots. “The people who lived here would have been powerful as it would have been a really high-status site,” he explained. For more, go to "The Many Lives of an English Manor House."
NOTTINGHAM, ENGLAND—According to a report in Live Science, prehistoric peoples living in what is now Western Europe may have built megalithic tombs as tools for observing the night sky and tracking the movements of the stars. “Different regions had their own traditions and architectural styles, but they are all variations on a theme,” said Daniel Brown of Nottingham Trent University. Spending the night inside these structures may have been part of a rite of passage that included watching the sky at dusk and dawn. In particular, passage graves, which have a large chamber accessed through a long, narrow entry tunnel, may have helped early astronomers see faint stars on the horizon. “The entrance creates an aperture as large as ten degrees through which your naked-eye view is restricted,” Brown said. Fabio Silva of the University of Wales Trinity Saint David added that knowing the positions of the stars at specific times of the year may have helped people time seasonal migrations. For more, go to "An Eye on Venus."
WOLLONGONG, AUSTRALIA—Scientists have found evidence of fireplaces that were in use between 41,000 and 24,000 years ago in Liang Bua Cave on the island of Flores. The cave is known as the site where the remains of Homo floresiensis, the diminutive hominin dubbed the “hobbit,” were discovered in 2003. It had been thought that Homo floresiensis died out around 12,000 years ago, but recent research suggests that the species may have gone extinct some 50,000 years ago. “This new evidence for fire at the site fits in with the chronology of modern humans moving through Southeast Asia and into Australia around 50,000 years ago,” Mike Morely of the University of Wollongong told The Australian. No evidence of the use of fire by Homo floresiensis over a period of about 130,000 years has been found in the cave, so scientists think the hearths were made by modern humans. “The gap’s narrowing between the two populations,” Morely explained. “We’ve got them in the same place and we’ve got less than 10,000 years between them.” If the two species did come in contact, it could help explain the demise of Homo floresiensis. For more, go to "New Flores Fossils May Be Hobbit Ancestors."
VILNIUS, LITHUANIA—Researchers from Israel, Lithuania, the United States, and Canada used electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to map the location of the 115-foot-long escape tunnel dug in the Ponar forest by Jewish prisoners of the Nazis. The prisoners, known as the “burning brigade,” were moved from the Stutthof concentration camp in 1943 to the Ponar forest execution site, where they were forced to open mass graves of Lithuanian and Polish Jews and burn the bodies in order to hide evidence from the Allies. At night, the prisoners, who were kept in an execution pit, dug the tunnel with their hands and spoons. According to a report in Live Science, on April 15, 1944, the last night of Passover that year, about 40 of the prisoners attempted to escape through the tunnel. Only 11 of them made their way to resistance forces and survived World War II. “The exposure of the tunnel enables us to present, not only the horrors of the Holocaust, but also the yearning for life,” said archaeologist Jon Seligman of the Israel Antiquities Authority. For more, go to "World War II Tunnels Reopened in Dover."
MEXICO CITY, MEXICO—The nearly complete remains of a mammoth, estimated to have lived between 12,000 and 14,000 years ago, were discovered near the village of Tultepec by utility workers. Archaeologists from Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History say that the site was once a shallow lake where mammoths could have gotten stuck. The bones of the adult animal were scattered, suggesting that it had been partially butchered by humans, although its skull and tusks are intact. Archaeologist Luis Cordoba told Agence France-Presse that the remains of more than 50 mammoths have been discovered in the region around Mexico City.
SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA—“Deep Skull,” a 37,000-year-old cranium discovered in Niah Cave on the island of Borneo, has been examined by Darren Curnoe of the University of New South Wales. When the skull was first studied after its discovery in 1958, researchers concluded that it belonged to an adolescent male who was closely related to modern indigenous Australians. That interpretation became part of a hypothesis postulating that Borneo’s first inhabitants were replaced by migrating farmers from southern China. According to the International Business Times, Curnoe suggests the skull belonged to an older woman and that it “more closely resembles people today from more northerly parts of Southeast Asia.” In this view, the remains could represent the ancestors of Borneo’s modern indigenous population. In this scenario, the island’s indigenous people adopted farming some 3,000 years ago. For more, go to "Letter from Borneo: The Landscape of Memory."
ASHEKELON, ISRAEL—Lifeguard Meir Amsik was out for his regular run on a beach at Tel Ashkelon National Park when he discovered a clay oil lamp eroding out of a costal cliff. After showing it to a colleague, the two decided to contact the Israel Antiquities Authority and alert specialists to the find. Archaeologist Sa’ar Ganor then examined the artifact and dated it to the twelfth century A.D., the Crusader Period. “Finding such a treasure is very exciting,” Amsick told the Jerusalem Post. “Just to feel like a part of history fulfills a sense of appreciation for what was here before me, and makes me feels like a link in the chain.” To read about the discovery of coins in Israel dating to the time of the Bar-Kokhba rebellion, go to “Artifact: Roman Coins in Israel.”
IRKUTSK, RUSSIA—Beneath a road used by tourists traveling to the popular destination of Lake Baikal, archaeologists have discovered a medieval forge dating to about A.D. 1000. Led by Irkutsk National Research Technical University's Artur Kharinsky, members of the team first noticed the site when they spotted slag on the surface of the road. The Siberian Times reports that remote sensing at the spot showed the presence of two underground structures, which after excavation were found to be stone furnaces that would have been used to smelt iron ore for knives and arrowheads. "Judging by the amount of iron, which can be produced with such forges, the locals managed not only to meet the needs of their own territory, but also to export production to neighboring areas," says Kharinsky. It's likely the forge was used by the medieval Turkic-speaking Kurykan people, who were know for their blacksmithing abilities. To read more about medieval-era archaeology in Siberia, go to “Fortress of Solitude.”
HAIFA, ISRAEL—LiveScience reports that recent excavations at the Greco-Roman city of Hippos near the Sea of Galilee may shed light on the discovery last year of a remarkable bronze mask depicting the half-man half-goat god Pan. University of Haifa archaeologist Michael Eisenberg led a team that unearthed a six-foot-tall Roman gate near a stone building where the mask was found, leading him to speculate that the gate might have led to a sanctuary dedicated to Pan. "The mask, and now the gate in which it was embedded, are continuing to fire our imaginations," Eisenberg says. "The worship of Pan sometimes included ceremonies involving drinking, sacrifices and ecstatic rituals, including nudity and sex. This worship usually took place outside the city walls, in caves and other natural settings." The possible sanctuary was located near the city gates and was constructed sometime during the reign of Hadrian, who was emperor from A.D. 117 to A.D. 138. To read more about Roman cults, go to "Saving the Villa of the Mysteries."
SILKEBORG, DENMARK—Study of a wooden Viking tomb dating to A.D. 950 shows it held the remains of a man and a woman who were likely nobles who had international connections. ScienceNordic reports that the man was buried with Baltic ceramics and coins from what is now Afghanistan, along with a battle-ax. “It’s a very large ax and would have been a formidable weapon," said archaeologist Kirsten Nelleman Nielsen, who led the excavation. "People across Europe feared this type of ax, which at the time was known as the Dane Ax—something like the ‘machine gun’ of the Viking Age.” The woman was buried in a wagon, as was typical for female nobility of the period, and went to her death carrying two keys, one of which fits a small shrine that was also buried with her. To read more about the archaeology of Vikings, go to "The First Vikings."
PHNOM PENH, CAMBODIA—The Associated Press reports that tests show a boat found in Cambodia earlier this year near the Angkor Wat temple complex was made in the early thirteenth century A.D. Measuring 42 feet long, the boat was found in a riverbed by a farmer digging for mud and is the oldest to be discovered in Cambodia. Until it is ready for public viewing, the boat is being kept underwater in a pond at Angkor Wat. To read more about the archaeology of Angkor Wat, go to "Remapping the Khmer Empire."
BEARDSTON, ILLINOIS—Archaeologists are excavating at the Lawrenz Gun Club site, one of the largest known fortified Mississippian Period villages in the Illinois River Valley, reports the Journal Courier. The site's defensive palisade was built around A.D. 1150, but a team led by Indiana University archaeologist Jeremy Wilson has unearthed another structure dating to A.D. 1100, which was part of an earlier and smaller settlement of some 100 people. The later fortified village could have housed up to 600 people and covered some 50 acres. The team has also unearthed a number of pot sherds as well as stone tools. “What we’re seeing here is ceramics that are either traded up or crafted in a very similar fashion to what was being made down near modern day St. Louis at that time," said Wilson. "The stone is also non-local. They’re getting a lot of this material from other parts of the lower Midwest.” To read about another site dating to the same period, go to “Mississippian Burning.”
ROME, ITALY—Archaeologists excavating a shop on the outskirts of Pompeii have found four skeletons, several gold coins, and a necklace pendant, according to an Associated Press report. The skeletons belonged to young people who died in the back of the shop when nearby Mount Vesuvius erupted in A.D. 79. There was an oven in the shop that the archaeologists believe may have been used to make bronze objects. There is evidence that the shop was targeted by looters seeking treasure after the eruption, but they apparently missed the gold coins and the gold-leaf-foil, flower-shaped pendant. Archaeologists have been excavating a second shop as well, though they are unsure what its purpose was. The dig has also turned up a fourth-century B.C. tomb containing an adult skeleton surrounded by six black vases. For more on the archaeology of Pompeii, go to "Family History."
RAMAT-GAN, ISRAEL—Archaeologists have found evidence that ancient Canaanites imported and sacrificed animals from Egypt around 5,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of donkey, sheep, and goat remains found in Early Bronze Age levels at Gath shows that the animals were born and raised in the Nile River valley and arrived in Canaan shortly before their deaths. “That there were trade connections between Egypt and Canaan in the Early Bronze Age is not new,” said Aren Maeir, head of the excavations in Gath, told Haaretz. “The fact that animals were a part of the trade—and that they went from Egypt to Canaan—is very interesting.” Among the imported animal remains was a complete skeleton of a donkey that was found under the foundations of a residential building. The donkey was apparently sacrificed and then put in place before the start of construction, a practice known from other Early Bronze Age sites in Israel. For more, go to “The Gates of Gath.”
NARA, JAPAN—In the south of Japan’s largest island of Honshu, archaeologists digging at the site of a future hotel have discovered remnants of 2,500-year-old rice paddies, reports the Asahi Shimbun. The paddies were planted during the Yayoi period, which lasted from 300 B.C. to A.D. 300. Traces of small rice paddies dating to this period had been found in the area, but the newly discovered paddies number around 500, and some measure up to 530 square feet. The discovery shows rice cultivation existed on a massive scale in Japan earlier than previously believed. To read more about archaeology in Japan, go to "Khubilai Khan Fleet."
ZANZIBAR, TANZANIA—Sci-News reports that seven bone tools from East Africa’s Kuumbi Cave, including five projectile points, a bone awl, and a notched bone tube, were examined by a team led by Michelle Langley of Australian National University. The researchers suggest the 13,000-year-old projectile points, which are slender and short, may have been too small to bring down the zebra, buffalo, waterbuck, common reedbuck, bushbuck, and bush pig whose bones were also found in Kuumbi Cave. Langley suggests that the projectiles were used in conjunction with poison, perhaps made from the poisonous fruit of the Mkunazi plant. (Charcoal from the Mkunazi plant was found during a previous investigation.) For more on archaeology in this area, go to "Stone Towns of the Swahili Coast."