COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA—Chester DePratter of the University of South Carolina and Victor Thompson of the University of Georgia used ground-penetrating radar and magnetometers to look for the outlines of Fort San Marcos, constructed in 1577 by Pedro Menedez Marquez, the governor of La Florida. He built the fort on Parris Island at the site of the town of Santa Elena, which had been abandoned a year earlier due to an attack by Native Americans, with wood posts and planking carried to the island with warships. This first fort at the site was eventually replaced when the wood rotted, but the Spanish abandoned the site for Fort Augustine in 1587 due to threats from the English. “This work will allow us to tell the story of the land that would eventually become the United States. Santa Elena is an important part of this history that lends insight into how colonial powers in Europe vied for control over this corner of the New World,” Thompson told The Post and Courier. To read more about the Spanish colonial period in the Southeast, go to "Off the Grid: Mission San Luis."
LEUVEN, BELGIUM—Live Science reports that leaves collected at the death site of Belgium’s King Albert I more than 80 years ago are stained with his blood. The 58-year-old king reportedly died on February 17, 1934, while mountain climbing alone near the village of Marche-les-Dames. His body was found at the foot of a cliff that was soon visited by thousands of mourners, some of whom collected souvenirs. Conspiracy theorists claimed that the king had been murdered, and his body placed at the foot of the cliff after he was killed by a blow to the head. Scientists from the University of Leuven analyzed the blood on leaves supposedly collected at the site at the time, and compared the DNA with two of the king’s living relatives. “We found that the blood is indeed that of Albert I,” said forensic geneticist Maarten Larmuseau. The scientists say the results support the account that Albert I died in a fall. “The story that the dead body of the king has never been in March-les-Dames or was only placed there at night has now become very improbable,” he said. To read about a similar study, go to "French Revolution Forgeries."
JERUSALEM, ISRAEL—A fragment of an Egyptian funerary statue dating to the third millennium B.C. has been unearthed in northern Israel by a team of archaeologists led by Amnon Ben-Tor of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. According to a report in i24 News, the limestone fragment includes some of the base of the statue, which had been carved with hieroglyphics. A preliminary translation of the text suggests that it praises an official connected to the ancient city of Memphis, but his name and position are unknown. The fragment also depicts the feet of a crouching figure that may have represented the official. Scholars think the statue may have been originally placed inside his tomb, or in a temple dedicated to the Egyptian god Ptah, who was associated with the city of Memphis. This statue, and another third-millennium statue discovered in the same building at Hazor, are the only two monumental Egyptian statues from this period to have been unearthed in the Levant. The sculptures may have been sent to the ruler of Hazor from Egypt as gifts during the later New Kingdom period. The statues were probably destroyed around 1200 B.C., when the city was conquered. To read more about Egyptian artifacts discovered in Israel, go to "Egyptian Style in Ancient Canaan."
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA—Research conducted by a team led by Andrew Moeller of the University of California, Berkeley, suggests that modern humans and the bacteria in their digestive tracts evolved together. The Guardian reports that Moeller and his team collected fecal samples from Tanzanian chimpanzees, Cameroonian gorillas, Congolese bonobos, and humans from Connecticut. They found that when two new species split from a common ancestor, at least two groups of gut bacteria did the same. “When there were no humans or gorillas, just ancestral African apes, they harbored gut bacteria. Then the apes split into different branches, and there was also a parallel divergence of different gut bacteria,” Moeller explained. He added that different strains of human gut bacteria could be used to reconstruct patterns of human migration. To read more, go to "Life (According to Gut Microbes)."
TÜBINGEN, GERMANY—Impressions of string have been found on fired clay, and string has been depicted in Ice Age artwork, but scholars have thus far known little about how European hunter-gatherers produced rope. Now according to a study conducted by researchers from the University of Tübingen and the University of Liège, Paleolithic hunter-gatherers may have used mammoth ivory tools to weave rope out of plant fibers. UPI reports that a team led by Nicholas Conard of the University of Tübingen found a 40,000-year-old tool in Hohle Fels Cave that had been carved with holes lined with spiral incisions. Veerle Rots of the University of Liège used replicas of the device to produce rope from plant fibers available near Hohle Fels. Similar tools have been found at Paleolithic sites in the past, but they were thought to be shaft-straighteners, artwork, or even musical instruments. To read about a Paleolithic masterpiece from the same region in Germany, go to "New Life for Lion Man."
ORKNEY, SCOTLAND—A human arm bone has been found during excavation of Neolithic buildings at the Ness of Brodgar in Orkney, an archipelago off the north coast of Scotland, according to a report in The National. Archaeologists from the University of the Highlands and Islands Archaeology Institute who have been excavating the site since 2002 believe the bone may have been placed intentionally and could have belonged to the founder of the complex. The Ness of Brodgar is located between the Ring of Brodgar and the Standing Stones of Stenness. It dates to the Neolithic period and features a number of buildings enclosed within a massive stone wall. Excavations have unearthed a sizeable amount of Neolithic artwork, pottery, animal bones, and stone tools. To read in-depth about this site, go to “Neolithic Europe's Remote Heart.”
SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS—Achaeologists are excavating at the site of the Alamo in an effort to locate the 18th-century mission’s original south and western adobe walls, according to Texas Public Radio. The dig is part of a planned eight-year effort the redevelop the World Heritage site. “To re-imagine the Alamo we first have to rediscover it,” says city archaeologist Kay Hindes. “So the work that we’re doing here is to try to determine the exact compound walls and to confirm those in the ground.” The team is using archival maps and leads provided by a 1970s-era excavation at the site to guide their work. In addition to the mission's original walls, they expect to find artifacts left behind by both the Catholic priests and Native Americans who lived at the site. To read about the archaeology of this period in the Southwest, go to "Searching for the Comanche Empire."
GEBEL RAMLAH, EGYPT—Polish archaeologists excavating in Egypt's Western Desert around a now-dried lake have unearthed a number of Neolithic sites dating from 11,000 to 7,000 years ago, allowing them to track cultural changes during the period, reports Science & Scholarship in Poland. In addition to evidence for small settlements and a number of cemeteries, the researchers discovered a large ochre-making workshop where people processed hematite into the red dye, which was used for clothing and also sprinkled into the graves in nearby cemeteries. "The most important conclusion after a few seasons of the research is this: the people had very diverse burial rites," says archaeologist Jacek Kabacinski, the expedition leader. "This suggests that perhaps we are dealing with different, independent groups of people who had used a very limited area for funeral purposes." Kabacinski speculates that when the climate grew drier toward the end of the Neolithic period and the lake became seasonal, people were forced into greater mobility, taking their flocks from watering hole to watering hole, which indirectly led to contact with more far-flung communities. To read in-depth about this period in Europe, go to "The Neolithic Toolkit."
CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND—Analysis of ancient feces shows that infectious parasites were transported on China’s Silk Road along with valuable goods. Researchers excavated the 2,000-year-old excrement from a latrine at Xuanquanzhi, a major stopping point along the legendary trading route in northwestern China. The feces were found on “personal hygiene sticks,” rods wrapped with cloth at one end that travelers used to clean themselves after defecating. Microscopic examination revealed the eggs of four parasitic intestinal worms in the feces, including those of Chinese river fluke, which thrives in wet areas and could not have come from the area where the excavation took place—the arid Tamrin Basin. The worm is most common in Guangdong Province, around 1,240 miles from the site, suggesting that the traveler infected with it most likely journeyed a great distance. “This is the earliest evidence for the spread of infectious diseases along the Silk Road,” Piers Mitchell of the University of Cambridge told Live Science, “and the first to find evidence at an archaeological site along the Silk Road itself.” For more, go to “Vikings, Worms, and Emphysema.”
BARCELONA, SPAIN—Two hundred silver denarii dating to the first century B.C. were discovered at the site of Empúries, a town founded by Greek colonists and later occupied by the Romans. The coins had been placed in a ceramic vase and hidden in a house that burned down. “This was a huge amount of money by that time and would have allowed the owner to live comfortably for quite a long time,” archaeologist Pere Castanyer told the Catalan News Agency. The cellar also contained 24 wine amphoras, a bronze ladle, and two bracelets. The excavators were surprised to find such treasures at Empúries, which is located near the coast of northeastern Spain, and has been under excavation for more than 100 years. For more, go to “Roman Coin Cache Discovered in Spain.”
VANCOUVER, CANADA—Archaeologist Bob Muir and his students at Simon Fraser University investigated a midden discovered by members of the K’ómoks First Nation when they dug a roasting pit for a barbecue held last year in the Comox Valley. The students uncovered shells; the well-preserved bones of deer, elk, and dogs; bone needles used for fishing; harpoon points; herring rakes; and some 80 flat pieces of stone engraved on one side. According to a report in the Comox Valley Record, the images are sometimes described as representing trees, feathers, or symbols of fertility. Similar engraved stones, known as tablets, have been found at only two other sites in the Comox Valley. Muir estimates that the tablets are about 2,000 years old. He will document and study the artifacts before they are returned to the K’ómoks First Nation. For more on archaeology in British Columbia, go to "The Edible Seascape."
LEICESTER, ENGLAND—A team led by Gavin Speed of the University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS) excavated the site of a Bronze Age barrow in central England ahead of the construction of a housing development. A stone ax dating to the Neolithic period was found in the backfill of the barrow ditch, suggesting that use of the site could date back 6,000 years. “By the Iron Age the barrow had partly eroded and its ditches had silted up but much of the mound was likely still upstanding, making it a visible landmark in the local landscape even if its original purpose and meaning had changed,” Speed told the Loughborough Echo. The site was used for at least 12 burials during the Anglo-Saxon period. These skeletons were poorly preserved, but a pottery vessel, spears, knives, a spike, a brooch, and the boss and studs of a shield were recovered. Some scholars think that the Anglo-Saxons may have reused Bronze Age barrows for burials as a display of power through connection to the past. For more on the Anglo-Saxon period, go to "Letter from England: Stronghold of the Kings in the North."
ZHENGZHOU, CHINA—A 3,000-year-old system of canals has been uncovered at the Yinxu site, the ancient capital of the Shang Dynasty in Henan Province. The 1.5-mile-long system carried water from the Huanhe River through the center of the city, and was nearly 20 feet wide in places. “The water system covers about half the city, running through workshops and the residential areas for commoners, located south of the palaces and temples,” Tang Jigen, head of the Anyang branch of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Institute of Archaeology, told Xinhuanet. Archaeologists have also uncovered the city’s system of roads: two arterial roads traveled north-south, while three roads ran east-west. For more on archaeology in China, go to "Tomb from a Lost Tribe."
KYOTO, JAPAN—Archaeologists with the Kyoto City Archaeological Research Institute say they have unearthed fragments of a huge sorin, the decorative finial placed atop a pagoda, on the grounds of the Kinkakuji temple. They think the fragments may have been part of the sorin that stood on the Kitayama Daito, a pagoda constructed under the orders of Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, the third shogun of the Muromachi Shogunate, starting in 1404. The Kitayama Daito is thought to have had seven tiers and may have been the largest pagoda ever built in Japan. But it was struck by lightning burned down in 1416, shortly before it was completed. According to a report in the Asahi Shimbun, the measurements of the fragments, made of gold-plated copper, suggest that the finished sorin measured almost eight feet in diameter. For more on archaeology in Japan, go to "Khubilai Khan Fleet."
HONG KONG—The South China Morning Post reports that the Hong Kong Underwater Heritage Group recovered the upper part of an anchor thought to be more than 1,000 years old near Basalt Island. “The anchor is proof that Hong Kong was perhaps quite advanced during the Song Dynasty in terms of water transport and commercial trade,” says Libby Chan Lai-pik of the Hong Kong Maritime Museum. The team also recovered a cannon thought to date to the first half of the nineteenth century off the coast of High Island. A second cannon remains underwater. “This trip is tangible evidence that there is historical material in Hong Kong’s waters,” adds Bill Jeffery of the Hong Kong Maritime Museum and the University of Guam.“ There have been lots of surveys on land but not in water.” For more on underwater archaeology, go to "Franklin’s Last Voyage."
HAMILTON, CANADA—A team of researchers has developed a way to look for signs of vitamin D deficiency in teeth by examining the remains of people who had been buried in rural Quebec and France in the 1700s and the 1800s. Teeth begin to develop layers of dentin, which requires an adequate supply of vitamin D to mineralize, before birth. So, anomalies found in the dentin would indicate that the subjects were not getting enough vitamin D in the diet, or from exposure to sunshine, at the time it was formed. “We correlated the age at which the tooth was forming, with the location of the defect in the tooth,” Lori D’Ortenzio of McMaster University explains in a report by The Canadian Press. The scientists also compared the samples to teeth from modern-day people, and when possible, examined the skeletons of the subjects. Defects in the dentin suggest that all of the subjects suffered from an extreme vitamin D deficiency, and an examination of their skeletons confirmed rickets, or weak and deformed bones, in some of the cases. For more, go to "Paleo-Dentistry."
CAIRO, EGYPT—A logbook containing records of the building of the Great Pyramid of Giza has gone on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, according to a report from Live Science. The largest of the three pyramids on the Giza Plateau, the Great Pyramid was built to honor the pharaoh Khufu (r. ca. 2545-2525 B.C.) and originally stood 481 feet tall. The papyrus logbook was written in hieroglyphics by an inspector named Merer who oversaw a team of some 200 workers. Discovered in 2013 at the Red Sea harbor of Wadi al-Jarf by archaeologists Pierre Tallet and Gregory Marouard, the 4,500-year-old logbook is the oldest papyrus document to have been found in Egypt. Its entries are dated to the 27th year of Khufu’s reign, when the major remaining building task involved assembling the limestone casing that would cover the outside of the pyramid. Merer detailed the route by which the limestone was transported to the pyramid site from a quarry near present-day Cairo via boat along the Nile and a network of canals—a trip that took four days in all. For more, go to “Egypt’s Immigrant Elite.”
EBINO, JAPAN—According to the Asahi Shimbun, archaeologists excavating a sixth-century A.D. tomb on the island of Kyushu have discovered iron blacksmith tools decorated with silver inlay, which strongly suggests they were influenced by Korean styles of the time. The artifacts, which appear to be a chisel and and a pair of bow tongs, were X-rayed and discovered to have waving inlaid silver patterns similar to those found on Korean swords that date to the same period. "It is totally unheard of to find metal inlaid works on items other than long swords and horse harnesses from around that time,” says Kagoshima University Museum archaeologist Tatsuya Hashimoto. Scholars note that the technique may have been introduced to Japan by Korean migrants, and that the tomb's occupant was likely an important personage who was possibly responsible for craftsmen in the area. To read in-depth about archaeology on the Korean Peninsula, go to "North Korea's Full Moon Tower."
LEICESTER, ENGLAND—Archaeologists have discovered evidence deep in a Caribbean cave that complicates the popular image of early European colonizers as unbending religious hardliners, according to a report in The Guardian. Walls in the cave, on uninhabited Mona Island, feature indigenous spiritual iconography alongside sixteenth-century European religious markings, including Christograms, abbreviations for Jesus Christ, and Latin sentences. The archaeologists who discovered them suggest that the juxtaposition illustrates a spiritual exchange between the two groups. “It is truly extraordinary,” says Jago Cooper of the British Museum. “It is proof that the first generation of Europeans were going into caves and being exposed to an indigenous world view. I can’t think of another site like this in the Americas.” Since 2013, the team has been exploring around 70 cave systems on the island, which is 40 miles west of Puerto Rico and was claimed for Spain by Christopher Columbus. The researchers believe the Christian markings were made by some of the earliest European colonizers in America. “This is not zealous missionaries coming with their burning crosses,” says Alice Samson of the University of Leicester, “they are people engaging with a new spiritual realm and we get individual responses in the cave and it is not automatically erasure, it is engagement.” For more on archaeology in the Caribbean, go to "Tracing Slave Origins."
DORSET, ENGLAND—Archaeologists digging at a massive Late Iron Age settlement in southeastern England have unearthed nine skeletons, reports BBC News. The remains were found buried in oval pits and some of the graves were furnished with meat and ceramic vessels. Future DNA and isotopic studies of the skeletons should provide the team with a wealth of information about ancestry and migration during the British Iron Age, a period during which most people either cremated their dead or buried them in wetlands. "Accessing skeletal information from this date in the UK is extremely rare," says Bournemouth University archaeologist Paul Cheetham. "This data could completely change our understanding of the Iron Age." Some 400 roundhouses have been discovered so far at the site, which was occupied beginning around 100 B.C. To read more about the archaeology of this period, go to “Letter From Wales: Hillforts of the Iron Age.”