Abstract: The Battle that Stopped Rome: Archaeology of Roman Defeat in the Teutoburg Forest
In September of the year 9 A.D., the Roman Emperor Augustus received word of a disaster on the northern frontier in Germany. Three legions of Roman soldiers had been overwhelmed by local warriors in what has become known as the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. The site of this battle, which was to change the course of Roman history, was discovered in 1987, and archaeologists are using materials they are excavating there to reconstruct what happened. Archaeological evidence from sites throughout the region allows us to address the most important question about this battle - how were local warriors able to deal the Roman legions such a devastating defeat?
Wells, P.S. The Battle that Stopped Rome: Emperor Augustus, Arminius, and the Slaughter of the Legions in the Teutoburg Forest. W.W. Norton, 2003.