SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA—A lifelike model of the mummy of a girl thought to have died of dysentery during Egypt’s Roman era has been created by combining computer tomography (CT) scans and 3-D scans of the mummy’s surface, according to a report in Live Science. The CT scans, taken in 2005, provide a look beneath the mummy’s wrappings, while the new surface scans, completed with a handheld 3-D scanner, captured details of its surface in color. The scans were then combined using software developed by the company Volume Graphics. The virtual model will become part of the exhibit at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, where the mummy is housed. Christof Reinhart of Volume Graphics explained that the new technique could help scientists link the features on the surface of an object to associated features on the inside of an object. For more, go to “Heart Attack of the Mummies.”
STANFORD, CALIFORNIA—The Washington Post reports that evolutionary biologist Oren Kolodny of Stanford University and his colleague Marc Feldman built a computer model to test how hominin population sizes and migration patterns could have affected the survival of Neanderthals in Europe. “It’s the simplest model that we can build without assuming any hard-to-prove claims, like selection or environmental change,” Kolodny said. The researchers ran the simulation hundreds of thousands of times, and in each one, a species had to go extinct, since two species cannot occupy the same environmental niche at the same time. In most of the simulations, Neanderthals died out within 12,000 years of the arrival of modern humans in Europe. Kolodny thinks that humans' gradual migration could have been enough to wipe out the Neanderthals. For more, go to “Should We Clone Neanderthals?”
CORINTH, GREECE—A team of scientists led by Elena Korka of the Greek Ministry of Culture has recovered jewels, coins, and other artifacts from tombs dating to the first through fourth centuries A.D. near the ancient settlement of Tenea, according to a report in Newsweek. Fourteen of the Roman graves had been organized in circles. These burials yielded gold and silver coins, vases, and lamps featuring depictions of the goddess Venus and two cupids. Roman-period builders also repurposed the limestone foundations of earlier, Hellenic structures to build the tombs for wealthy, Roman-era occupants, Korka said. These people were buried with artifacts such as gilded bronze leaves, a golden ring, precious stones, and perfumes, glassware, and pottery. For more, go to “Greece's Biggest Tomb.”
ZHENGZHOU, CHINA—Xinhua reports that 90 horse skeletons and four chariots have been recovered from a 2,400-year-old pit in central China. The pit was found in a cemetery of more than 3,000 tombs and 18 pits containing chariots and the remains of horses, near a tomb thought to have belonged to a lord of the Zheng State, who lived during the late Spring and Autumn Period, or sometime between 770 and 476 B.C. “As the main tomb has been looted and no written records have been found yet, it is difficult to identify the tomb owner,” said Ma Juncai of the Henan Province cultural heritage and archaeology institute. The largest of the chariots in this pit was equipped with rain and sun protection for the passenger, and was decorated with bronze and bone artifacts. The horses are thought to have been killed, then placed in the pit, and then covered with pieces of a dismantled chariot. To read about another recent discovery in China, go to “Tomb Couture.”
HURGHADA, EGYPT—Ahram Online reports that antiquities officials confiscated a Coptic icon protected by a 1983 antiquities law at Hurghada International Airport. Naglaa El-Kobrosly, director of the Antiquities Units in Egyptian Airports, said a passenger attempted to smuggle the Christian triptych out of the country in some luggage. Crafted from copper in the eighteenth century, the icon’s three panels are said to reflect the Byzantine style. To read about a similar Byzantine artifact that was recently unearthed, go to "Iconic Discovery."
LONDON, ENGLAND—X-ray imaging has revealed a rare portrait of Mary Queen of Scots underneath a painting of a Scottish nobleman, according to a report in The Independent. The unfinished image is thought to have been started in 1586 by Dutch artist Adrian Vanson in Scotland, while Mary was a prisoner in England, and may have been abandoned when she was executed for her complicity in a plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I later that year. The sketch of Mary’s face, hat, and neck were eventually covered with the image of Sir John Maitland, the Scottish king’s Chancellor, in 1588. Part of Mary’s dress was turned into his doublet, and her right hand was modified to form Maitland’s right hand. “Now that we know from the X-ray images what was going on, it explains why the portrait of the Scottish Chancellor was so awkwardly painted,” said Caroline Rae of the Courtauld Institute of Art. To read about similar work being done on ancient Roman frescoes in Herculaneum, go to "Putting on a New Face."
SOFIA, BULGARIA—Archaeology in Bulgaria reports that an excavation team from Bulgaria’s National Museum of History has uncovered parts of an ancient silver wreath in a burial mound located near Bulgaria’s Dyadovo Settlement Mound. The region, located in southeast Bulgaria, was inhabited from the end of the seventh millennium B.C. through the twelfth century A.D., and was the site of a Thracian fortress during the Bronze Age. The wreath is thought to have been crafted by the Thracians sometime between the late first century and beginning of the third century A.D., after the region was conquered by the Romans. The pieces, engraved with images of plant leaves and fruit, show signs of having been melted, perhaps because its owner had been cremated. To read more about Thracian grave goods, go to "Thracian Treasure Chest."
DUNDEE, SCOTLAND—According to a report in BBC News, forensic artist Christopher Rynn of Dundee University’s Center for Anatomy and Human Identification used twentieth-century photographs of a now missing skull to create a 3-D digital reconstruction of Lilias Adie, a Scottish woman who died in 1704 while imprisoned for the crime of witchcraft. In the nineteenth century, her remains were exhumed from a grave on the Fife coast that had been covered with a large stone, presumably to keep her rising from the grave. Adie was tortured and interrogated in prison in an effort to get her to name other women as witches. But she only pointed the finger at those who had already been named. Adie is thought to have taken her own life. To read about archaeological evidence for witchcraft in the British Isles, go to "The Witches of Cornwall."