ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA—The partial frozen carcass of a mammoth was discovered near the eastern shore of Yenisei Bay in the central Siberian Arctic in 2012 by an 11-year-old boy. Scientists, led by Alexei Tikhonov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, excavated the mammoth remains, and found injuries made by sharp weapon tips to the ribs and right mandible, and signs of chopping to the outside of the right tusk. “This is a rare case for unequivocal evidence for clear human involvement,” Vladimir Pitulko of the Russian Academy of Science told Science. Radiocarbon dating of collagen from the tibia, bone, hair, and muscle tissue indicate that the animal died some 45,000 years ago, or 10,000 years earlier than it had been thought modern humans lived in the Eurasian Arctic. The find also indicates that people had made the necessary adaptations in cooperation, hunting, tool making, shelter building, and clothing production in order to live in such a harsh environment. To read about mammoth remains discovered on a Michigan farm, go to "Leftover Mammoth."
ATHENS, GREECE—A well-preserved skeleton of a horse has been unearthed in a necropolis in southern Greece. “In the Faliro necropolis we have found four complete horse burials, as well as parts of other skeletons, therefore it is not something rare for the area. What is rare and surprised us was the degree of preservation of the specific skeleton, which even has its hooves,” Stella Chrysoulaki, head of Greece’s West Attica, Piraeus, and the Islands Ephorate, told The Athens News Agency. “For zoo-archaeologists or a university, this find could be an excellent opportunity for a study. Having such a large number of skeletons—four is quite a number—such a study could reach a number of conclusions on the breeds and the evolution of the species,” she added. More than 100 burials have been found in the cemetery, which dates back to the eighth century B.C. To read more about the role of horses in the Greco-Roman world, go to "Sport and Spectacle."
CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA—A shipwreck thought to date to the nineteenth century has been discovered in the Indian Ocean by the team searching for missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370. The plane disappeared on March 8, 2014, while traveling from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing. The search for the plane, over an area of 46,000 square miles, is being directed by Australia’s Joint Agency Coordination Center (JACC). This is the second historic shipwreck found by the search teams, who used an autonomous underwater vehicle with high-resolution sonar to collect additional information on the target. “The Shipwreck Galleries of the Western Australian Museum have conducted a preliminary review of some sonar imagery and advised that the vessel is likely to be a steel/iron vessel dating from the turn of the nineteenth century,” according to a statement by the JACC and reported by NPR. To read more about shipwrecks, go to "History's 10 Greatest Wrecks..."
BOLZANO, ITALY—A recent study of a DNA sample from the 5,300-year-old frozen mummy known as Ötzi the Iceman showed that his paternal genetic line, named G2a, is still present in modern populations. But a new study, conducted by researchers from the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC), indicates that his genetic maternal line is now extinct. The researchers compared Ötzi’s ancient maternal line, named K1f, with 1,077 modern samples from the K1 lineage, including samples collected in the eastern Alps, which would presumably still be connected to the Iceman. An earlier study of Ötzi’s mitochondrial DNA compared it to only 85 modern samples, none of which came from the eastern Alps. The new study concluded that the Iceman’s lineage and any that might have been close to it have died out. Comparison of Ötzi’s genetic material with other European Neolithic samples suggests that his paternal lineage arrived from the Near East some 8,000 years ago, and was very common in Europe, while his maternal lineage probably originated in, and only existed in, the Alps. To read more about Ötzi the Iceman, go to "Heart Attack of the Mummies."
RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA—Forensic scientists at North Carolina State University say that their analysis of the injuries of modern child abuse victims can be used to shed light on how children were treated in the past. “Unfortunately, we have a lot of experience in studying the skeletal remains of children in criminal investigations to determine how they were treated and how they died. We can use what we’ve learned in modern populations to provide insight into the behavior of historic and prehistoric populations—particularly in regard to child labor, child abuse, and child murder,” anthropologist Ann Ross said in NC State News. The research suggests that scientists can differentiate between children’s accidental and intentional injuries. “For example, some combinations of injuries are highly indicative of abuse, such as multiple rib fractures at different stages of healing. That’s a red flag,” Ross explained. And skeletal abnormalities in children, caused by conditions such as rickets and scurvy, can be caused by neglect. “Our goal here is to give biological anthropologists clinical methods to help them interpret skeletal remains based on the best scientific data,” she said. To read more about children in the archaeological record, go to "Child Burials - Carthage, Tunisia."