The Coriglia/Orvieto Excavation Project


Location: Umbria, Italy

Season: 
May 22, 2016 to July 1, 2017

Application Deadline: 
Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Deadline Type: 
Rolling

Flyer: PDF icon ima_excavations_2017.pdf

Program Type

Field school
Volunteer

no

Affiliation:

Saint Anselm College and the Parco Archeologico Ambientale dell'Orvietano

Project Director:

David B. George, Saint Anselm College and Claudio Bizzarri, Parco Archeologico Ambientale dell'Orvietano

Project Description

This summer we will be working at three sites within the Parco.

We are accepting volunteers to participate in excavations in Italy during the summer of 2017 with the Coriglia/Orvieto Project.   This international archaeological project is sponsored by the Department of Classics at Saint Anselm College.  The Department’s works in Italy are conducted in cooperation with civic and archaeological officials of the towns of Orvieto and Castel Viscardo, the village of Monterubiaglio, and the Soprintendenza per I Beni Archeologici dell’Umbria.   This archaeological expedition is part of a long-term project to excavate several sites near Orvieto.  Volunteers will have the opportunity to gain experience in diverse aspects of the broad field of archaeology by participating not only in excavations in the field, but also in the cleaning, identification, and documentation of recovered artifacts and the floatation of soil samples for the purpose of collecting organic matter in the form of seeds, grains, nuts, and other evidence of the historic flora and fauna available to the site’s inhabitants.  This season we will be working at three sites: the first project is an Etrusco-Roman settlement at Coriglia approximately 8 miles from Orvieto, the second is a 2500 year old Etruscan pyramidal hypogeum deep below the city of Orvieto, the third being the 6th century BCE Etruscan necropolis of Crocifisso del Tufo.

CORIGLIA: At this Etrusco-Roman settlement we have uncovered a number of monumental structures over the last 12 years.  Among the most striking features are two walls (one Etruscan, the other Roman) the most recent a retaining wall of Imperial date running more or less East-West for 55m then turning to the North and running for another 70m.  To the south of this wall runs the older Etruscan wall constructed of tufa and encased with basalt stone.  The Imperial wall seems to respect the footprint of this earlier wall which has been dated from ceramics and construction to between the 6th to the 4th century BCE.  All of the ceramic materials found in this context are Etruscan or imported Greek.  Behind the tufa wall seems to have been a terrace surmounted by a series of inverted large pots (dolia) referred to as ziros. In this part of Etruria, these finds frequently indicate sacrifice to gods of the dead.  If these walls marked out a temenos (sacred space), the direction it faced is as yet unknown.  Evidence for postholes and collapse of a structure have been found on the terrace.  An understanding of their context here requires further excavation.  Further to the south of these structures we found in 2009 a large basin (vasca) cutting through at least four phases of walls. In 2014 we found two more, immediately adjacent, very large basins (large enough for two cars to fit into them).  These structures are of Roman Imperial date but evidence indicates their continued use until the 14th century.  Another area of particular interest is in the northwest corner of the site. In 2007 we uncovered an apsidal structure the inside of which was covered with hydraulic cement interpreted as being either associated with a caldarium (the heated portion of a bath) or as part of a nymphaeum (a type of water feature).  Continued excavation in this area revealed adjoining rooms to the north of the first apsidal structure, two additional apsidal structures, and remains of a hypocaust system confirming the existence of a caldarium at the far northern end of the trench. The association of these various parts to each other remains unclear.  To the east and unrelated to these structures we have found a series of Etruscan walls, one of which had an Etruscan ritual deposit beneath it. In 2015 we discovered in the south east corner of this same trench an intact vault dating from the 1st century BCE that we shall continue exploring in future seasons. Evidence found in 2016 indicates the site may have functioned as a sanctuary.

 

Our initial interpretation of the site was that it was an Etruscan settlement that, after the Roman conquest of Orvieto (the Etruscan Velzna), had developed into a Roman villa.  The finds are, however, incongruous with this idea; they are too monumental in some cases and wanting in the types of ceramic remains that one would expect to find associated with a villa. In addition the roof tiles are more indicative of public and religious buildings of the Etruscan and Roman periods.  Our current working model is that Coriglia began as an Etruscan healing shrine around which a small town developed and grew.  Coriglia in turn, after the Roman suppression of Orvieto (Velzna) with which it was associated grew into a larger town with a bath complex/shrine along a branch of the Via Cassia during the late Republic.  The complex remained in use until at least the 5th century CE.  The settlement persisted until at least 1000 CE with production activity lasting until the 15th century CE.

CAVITÀ 254: As for the underground pyramidal structure (hypogeum), we discovered it four summers ago but have not yet ascertained its function.  We do know what it is not.  It is not a quarry; it’s walls are too well dressed.  It is not a well or cistern; its walls have no evidence of hydraulic treatments.  We have excavated to a depth of 18 meters finding in sequence a medieval floor over a mix of material from the prehistoric to the 5th century BCE, followed by a meter and half of relatively sterile gray sandy material poured in from some point above at the center of the cavity.  Below this, is a series of strata deposited from a flight of stairs cut into the tufa wall.  Material recovered from these deposits dates to around the middle to end of the 6th century.  There are large quantities of Gray and Black bucchero, common ware, and substantial Attic Red and Black Figure pottery.   Evidence in these deposits show that the site was sealed toward the end of the 5th century BCE; apparently in a single event.  Of great significance is the number of Etruscan language inscriptions that we have recovered – over a hundred and fifty and growing. We are also finding an interesting array of architectural/decorative terra cotta.  Excavation continues with the goal of identifying the purpose of this structure and reason for its ritual “killing.”

Crocifisso del Tufo:  This important site dates from the 6th century BCE.  June 2015 saw the beginning of our collaboration with the Parco Archeologico e Ambientale dell’Orvietano to open up new excavations in this necropolis.  Each season has seen the discovery of a hitherto unknown and intact burial. We look forward to further discoveries this season.

All participants excavate at all sites as well assist in the labs in a rotation throughout the season.

 One component of the excavations is its Archaeological Field School that supervises the immediate excavations and offers lectures and other educational opportunities.  Academic credit is also available to those who wish.  Members of the archaeological field school will be required to attend regular evening lectures and a number of short excursions to other near by sites and museums. 

Period(s) of Occupation: Etruscan; Roman Republican; Roman Imperial, late antique

Notes: 
Etruscan settlement; Roman Bath Complex; Etruscan Sanctuary; Etruscan hypogeum. Our project is working at three sites in the Parco, one near Orvieto, Italy and one underneath Orvieto the other on the slope of the mesa. The first is an Etrusco-Roman settlement that begins as an Iron Age settlement and, with no interruptions, continues through a late medieval phase. The strongest phases are Hellenistic Etruscan, Early Empire and mid-third Century CE. We have uncovered a number of monumental structures. Among the most striking features are two walls the most recent a retaining wall of Imperial date running more or less East-West for 55 m then turning to the North and apparently running for 70 m. To the south of this wall runs an older wall constructed of tufa and encased with basalt stone. The Imperial wall seems to respect the footprint of an earlier wall dated from ceramics and construction to between the sixth and fourth century B.C.E. All of the ceramic materials found in this context are Etruscan or imported Greek. Behind the tufa wall seems to have been a terrace surmounted by a series of inverted dolium (ziro). We also found evidence for postholes and the collapse of a structure on the terrace. In this part of Etruria, they frequently indicate a sacrifice to gods of the dead. An understanding of their context here requires further excavation. Further to the south of these structures we found a series of large vascae cutting through at least four phases of walls. Another area of particular interest is the north-west corner of the site. We uncovered an apsidal structure the inside of which was covered with hydraulic cement that we interpreted as either associated with a caldarium or as part of a nymphaeum. We also found more rooms to the north of the apsidal structure but neither abutting nor quite in the current state of preservation adjoining. We have recovered a hypocaust but the association of the various parts to each other is as yet unclear. To the west of these structures we have found a series of Republican and Imperial floors and walls below which we recovered a wall with an associated Etruscan ritual deposit. Beneath the city of Orvieto, we have uncovered a pyramidal hypogeum of Archaic Etruscan date. We are working to excavate this structure in association with the Fondazione Faina. It has a stair case carved into the tufa wall that decends along two sides. It is quite large. Currently the cavity is 10.5 m x 10.5 m at the bottom of the excavated level. It is 15 m from the lowest point of excavation to the closed-in apex. To date, we have recovered animal bones, fragments of braziers, large quantities of bucchero vessels as well as substantial fragments of Attic Red and Black figure pottery. Crocifisso del Tufo Necropolis: This important Etruscan site dates from the 6th century BCE. Last June we opened up new excavations in the necropolis. It the first season we discovered a hitherto unknown intact tomba a casetta. We are looking to futher discoveries this coming season. All volunteers rotate between all sites as well as the lab. Students in the lab will be taught how to use XRF and Raman as well as various other archaeometric techniques.

Project size: 
25-49 participants

Minimum Length of Stay for Volunteers: 3 weeks

Minimum age: 
18

Experience required: 
none

Room and Board Arrangements

The fee covers room and board. The dig house is a 10th monastery, the Convento S. Lorenzo in Vineis, near the excavation - two to four to a room. Some additional rooms are in a Ex-School just down the road from the Convento.  These rooms are domatory style.  Both residences have laundry machines and drying racks.  Meals are taken in the refectory of monastery. They are prepared by a chef who is on staff. Pictures of the accommodations are up at digumbria.com under facebook photos.

Cost: 
$600 per week/ $3,600 for all six weeks.

Academic Credit

Name of institution offering credit: 
Saint Anselm College
Number of credits offered 4 to 8 credits for Archaeological Fieldwork (optional)
Tuition: 
$1,200 for four credits (Credit is optional)

Location

Contact Information
David B. George
Department of Classics; Saint Anselm College
Manchester
NH
USA
03102
Telephone: 
(603) 641-7069