Location: Umbria, Italy
This summer we will be working at three sites within the Parco.
We are accepting volunteers to participate in excavations in Italy during the summer of 2018 with the Coriglia/Orvieto Project. This international archaeological project is sponsored by the Department of Classics at Saint Anselm College. The Department’s works in Italy are conducted in cooperation with civic and archaeological officials of the towns of Orvieto and Castel Viscardo, the village of Monterubiaglio, and the Soprintendenza per I Beni Archeologici dell’Umbria. This archaeological expedition is part of a long-term project to excavate several sites near Orvieto. Volunteers will have the opportunity to gain experience in diverse aspects of the broad field of archaeology by participating not only in excavations in the field, but also in the cleaning, identification, and documentation of recovered artifacts and the floatation of soil samples for the purpose of collecting organic matter in the form of seeds, grains, nuts, and other evidence of the historic flora and fauna available to the site’s inhabitants. This season we will be working at three sites: the first project is an Etrusco-Roman settlement at Coriglia approximately 8 miles from Orvieto, the second is a 2500 year old Etruscan pyramidal hypogeum deep below the city of Orvieto, the third being the 6th century BCE Etruscan necropolis of Crocifisso del Tufo.
CORIGLIA: Over the last 13 years excavations at this Etrusco-Roman settlement have uncovered a complex assemblage of monumental structures that resulted from the persistent habitation of the site from as at least the 6th century BCE through the renaissance. Among its interesting features are two walls, one Etruscan, the other Roman. The older Etruscan wall, constructed of tufa and encased with basalt stone, runs approximately East-West for 55m. The more recent retaining wall of Imperial date paralleled the entire length of this wall before turning to the North and then running for another 70m terracing the landscape. The Etruscan wall, dated from ceramics and construction to between the 6th and 4th century BCE, supports the south portion of the upper terrace and had been surmounted by a series of inverted large pots (dolia) referred to as ziros. In this part of Etruria, these finds frequently indicate sacrifice to gods of the dead. Evidence for postholes and collapse of a structure have been found on this portion of the terrace. If this wall marked out a temenos (sacred space), the direction it faced is as yet unknown. All of the ceramic materials found in this context are Etruscan or imported Greek. To the east an Imperial road, stormwater basins, water supply pipes and canals, and an entry to the site were repeatedly reworked. To the southwest two large vascae (each large enough to hold a sport utility vehicle) were excavated in 2009 and 2010. These Imperial structures cut even earlier catch basins and canals and were later tapped as a water source for a medieval workshop excavated along their northern exterior wall. Western portions of the upper terrace support a bath of Late Republican construction that was expanded during the early Imperial period. In 2007 we uncovered an apsidal structure at its southeast corner the inside of which was covered with hydraulic cement interpreted as part of a nymphaeum (a type of water feature). Continued excavation in this area revealed adjoining rooms to the north of this apsidal structure, two additional apsidal structures, and remains of a hypocaust system confirming the existence of a caldarium at the far northwest corner of the trench. To the east and unrelated to these structures we have found a series of Etruscan walls, one of which had an Etruscan ritual deposit beneath it that dates to around 400 BCE. This area, once a lower terrace was at some point overflowed by one or more landslides, was left buried, and built upon rather than excavated to its original level. In 2015 in the southeast corner of this same trench we discovered an intact vault system dating from the 1st century BCE that we shall continue exploring in future seasons. Evidence found in this vault, the landslide material and the catch basins during the 2016 and 2017 excavations indicates the site may have functioned as a sanctuary.
Our initial interpretation of the site as an Etruscan settlement that had developed into a Roman villa after the Roman conquest of Orvieto (the Etruscan Velzna) has not been supported by our subsequent excavation results. The finds are too monumental and wanting in the types of ceramic remains that one would expect to find associated with a villa. In addition the roof tiles are more indicative of public and religious buildings of the Etruscan and Roman periods. Our current working model is that Coriglia began as an Etruscan water/healing shrine around which a small town developed and grew. After the Roman suppression of Orvieto (Velzna) with which Coriglia was associated the finds indicate that it grew into a larger town with a bath complex/shrine along a branch of the Via Cassia during the late Republic, possibly dedicated to Bacchus. The complex remained in use until at least the 5th century CE. The settlement persisted until at least 1000 CE with production activity lasting until the 15th century CE.
CAVITÀ 254: As for the underground pyramidal-shaped structure (hypogeum), we discovered it five summers ago but have not yet ascertained its function. We know what it is not. It is not a quarry; it’s walls are too well dressed. It is not a well or cistern; its walls have no evidence of hydraulic treatments. We have excavated to a depth of 18 meters finding in sequence a medieval floor over a mix of material from the prehistoric to the 5th century BCE, followed by a meter and half of relatively sterile gray sandy material poured in from some point above at the center of the cavity. Below this, is a series of strata deposited from a flight of stairs cut into the tufa wall. Material recovered from these deposits dates to around the middle to end of the 6th century. There are large quantities of Gray and Black bucchero, common ware, and substantial Attic Red and Black Figure pottery. Evidence in these deposits show that the site was sealed toward the end of the 5th century BCE; apparently in a single event. Of great significance is the number of Etruscan language inscriptions that we have recovered – over a hundred and fifty and growing. We are also finding an interesting array of architectural/decorative terra cotta. Excavation continues with the goal of identifying the purpose of this structure and reason for its ritual “killing.”
Crocifisso del Tufo: This important site dates from the 6th century BCE. June 2015 saw the beginning of our collaboration with the Parco Archeologico e Ambientale dell’Orvietano to open new excavations in this necropolis. Each season has seen the discovery of a hitherto unknown and intact burial. We look forward to further discoveries this season.
All participants excavate at all sites as well assist in the labs in a rotation throughout the season.
An important component of the excavations is its Archaeological Field School that supervises the immediate excavations and offers lectures and other educational opportunities. Academic credit is available to those who wish. In addition, we have provided opportunities for graduate students to develop thesis projects, publish papers, and present findings at venues including the Archaeological Institute of America’s Annual meeting. Members of the archaeological field school will be required to attend regular evening lectures and a number of short excursions to other nearby sites and museums.
Period(s) of Occupation: Etruscan; Roman Republican; Roman Imperial, late antique
Minimum Length of Stay for Volunteers: 3 weeks
Room and Board Arrangements
The fee covers room and board. The dig house is a 10th monastery, the Convento S. Lorenzo in Vineis, near the excavation - two to four to a room. Some additional rooms are in a Ex-School just down the road from the Convento. These rooms are domatory style. Both residences have laundry machines and drying racks. Meals are taken in the refectory of monastery. They are prepared by a chef who is on staff. Pictures of the accommodations are up at digumbria.com under facebook photos.